E chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Lecture Outlines Chemical...

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Chapter 2 Lecture Outlines Chemical Components of Cells Copyright © Garland Science 2010
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CHAPTER CONTENTS CHEMICAL BONDS MOLECULES IN CELLS MACROMOLECULES IN CELLS ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS
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BIOCHEMISTRY • LIVING CELLS OBEY THE SAME CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL LAWS AS NON LIVNG THINGS • CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: •IS BASED MOSTLY ON CARBON COMPOUNDS •DEPENDS ON CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT TAKE PLACE IN AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION •IS COMPLEX •IS DOMINATED AND COORDINATED BY POLYMERIC MOLECULES •IS TIGHTLY REGULATED
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REVIEW CHEMICAL BONDS • Cells Are Made of Relatively Few Types of Atoms • The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact • Ionic Bonds Form by the Gain and Loss of Electrons • Covalent Bonds Form by the Sharing of Electrons • Covalent Bonds Vary in Strength • There Are Different Types of Covalent Bonds • Electrostatic Attractions Help Bring Molecules Together in Cells • Water Is Held Together by Hydrogen Bonds • Some Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water
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Figure 2-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Elements are substances that cannot be broken down or converted into other substances by chemical means Atoms are the smallest units of a chemical element that retains the distinctive chemical properties of that element Atoms are made up of smaller particles: protons and neutrons electrons
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Figure 2-2 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
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Figure 2-4 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Living cells are made up of a limited number of elements
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Figure 2-5 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact inert, chemically unreactive
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Figure 2-10 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) The number of electrons an atom must acquire or lose to attain a filled outer shelf determines the number of bonds that atom can make
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Figure 2-8 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Chemical bonds form between atoms as electrons move to reach a more stable arrangement: Ionic bonds form by the gain and loss of electrons (electrostatic attraction ) Soft metal Toxic gas Table salt
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Figure 2-9 Essential Cell Biology
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E chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Lecture Outlines Chemical...

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