E chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Lecture Outlines Energy Catalysis...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Lecture Outlines Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis Copyright © Garland Science 2010 CHAPTER CONTENTS THE USE OF ENERGY BY CELLS FREE ENERGY AND CATALYSIS ACTIVATED CARRIER MOLECULES AND BIOSYNTHESIS ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS THE USE OF ENERGY BY CELLS • Living organisms are able to exist because of a continual input of energy • Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells • Primary source of energy for most living organisms is the sun • Photosynthetic Organisms Use Sunlight to Synthesize Organic Molecules • Cells Obtain Energy by the Oxidation of Organic Molecules • Oxidation and Reduction Involve Electron Transfers • Catabolic reactions break down food molecules through oxidative pathways • Anabolic reactions generate molecules need by cell and require an energy input igure 3-3 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Cells create and maintain order at every level in a universe that is tending always toward greater disorder igure 3-5 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Second law of thermodynamic: the amount of disorder (entropy) in the universe must always increase. Cells do not defy the second law of thermodynamics igure 3-4 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Where does the heat released by the cell come from? First law of thermodynamics: energy can be converted from one form to another but the total amount of energy must be conserved, the total amount of energy in the universe must be the same Where does the energy needed by the cell come from? igure 3-2 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Each cell is a chemical factory performing many millions of reactions every second igure 3-8 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Solar energy enters the living world through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in 2 stages, only one is light dependent ATP NADPH Carbon fixation, dark cycle or Calvin cycle igure 3-9 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes in the living world igure 3-11b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Oxidation: addition of oxygen atoms, removal of electrons Reduction: addition of hydrogen, atom (proton) and electrons igure 3-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) • Most chemical reactions that cells would perform would normally occur only at temperatures that are much higher than those inside a cell. • Enzymes catalyze reactions by binding to particular substrate molecules. • Enzymes accelerate/boost one if the many possible kinds of reactions that a particular molecule might undergo. • Enzymes catalyze energetically unfavorable – but life sustaining- reactions. igure 3-15 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Enzymes convert substrates to products while remaining unchanged themselves • Enzymes Lower the Energy Barriers That Prevent Chemical Reactions from Occurring • The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction Determines...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2009 for the course BIOS 222 taught by Professor Warphea during the Spring '08 term at Ill. Chicago.

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E chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Lecture Outlines Energy Catalysis...

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