E chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression Chapter...

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Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression Copyright © Garland Science 2010 Chapter 9 How Genes and Genomes Evolve Chapter 5 DNA and Chromosomes
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CHAPTER 5 CONTENTS AN OVERVIEW OF GENE EXPRESSION HOW TRANSCRIPTIONAL SWITCHES WORK THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS THAT CREATE SPECIALIZED CELL TYPES POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROLS ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS
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AN OVERVIEW OF GENE EXPRESSION • The Different Cell Types of a Multicellular Organism Contain the Same DNA • Different Cell Types Produce Different Sets of Proteins • A Cell Can Change the Expression of Its Genes in Response to External Signals • Gene Expression Can Be Regulated at Many of the Steps in the Pathway from DNA to RNA to Protein
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The DNA of each cell contains all of the information to synthesize the RNA and proteins that are needed to make more cells like it.
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Figure 8-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) A typical eukaryotic cell expresses only a fraction of its genes.
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Figure 5-25 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) •The genetic material of an eukaryotic cell is contained in a set of chromosomes. •Each chromosome has a single long DNA molecule and specialized proteins. •All of that DNA (2 meters) is packaged and compacted (5-8 μ m nucleus). •Chromosome packing occurs on multiple levels and it is dynamic.
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Figure 9-28 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) The DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes contain replication origins, a centromere, two telomeres as well as “genes”
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Figure 9-29 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) The bulk of the human genome is made of non- coding and repetitive nucleotide sequences Genes contain information for making particular proteins (through mRNA) or RNA molecules (small nuclear, microRNA, ribosomal, and transfer)
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Table 7-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
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Figure 7-23 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells handle their mRNA transcripts differently
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Figure 7-2 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Protein coding genes are transcribed and direct the synthesis of proteins (translation). Genes can be expressed with different efficiencies.
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Figure 10-33 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Some protein coding genes are expressed in all cells (housekeeping proteins ) others (specialized proteins ) are differentially expressed. How do we know that differentiated cells do not loose DNA in the process of differentiation?
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Figure 8-2a and 8-2c Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Nuclear transplantation experiments
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Figure 8-2b and c Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010) Individual cells can regenerate an entire adult organism
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HOW TRANSCRIPTIONAL SWITCHES WORK • Transcription Is Controlled by Proteins Binding to Regulatory DNA Sequences • Transcription Switches Allow Cells to Respond to Changes in the Environment • Repressors Turn Genes Off, Activators Turn
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E chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Control of Gene Expression Chapter...

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