Lab8new - Name: SID: Lab 8: Properties of Minerals and...

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Name: SID: Lab 8: Properties of Minerals and Rocks Grotzinger, Jordan, Press and Siever, Ch. 3 Introduction: Geologists examine Earth materials (rock, soils, sediments, water or ice) to determine the material identity, origin, and how it arrived at its present setting. These observations are then interpreted to derive a better understanding of primary concepts such as the evolution of the Earth, Earth resources, and the changing Earth enviroment. The first step in understanding geology is to observe Earth materials and develop techniques to distinguish and describe these materials. In this lab you will learn how to use a hand lens (a 10x magnifying glass often called a 'loupe'), a scratch plate, and several other tools to investigate, describe, and identify minerals and rocks. These techniques form the basis for identifying the presence and understanding the implications of Earth materials in future labs and in the field. Objective: In this lab you will learn to distinguish between minerals based on a few qualitative diagnostic tests. Along the way you will begin to recognize some of Earth's basic minerals and their general chemistries. You will also learn to determine major rock types. Answers: Please answer the indented, numbered questions on the answer sheet at the back of the lab handout. Explanations should be concise; most questions can be answered with a few words, or a sentence or two. All answers should be your own, but we encourage you to discuss and check your answers with 2-3 other students. This is a terrific way to learn! Labs are graded out of 100 points. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Basic Observations 1) Look at the piece of granite in Tray 1 and write down at least five observations about this rock. Draw a sketch showing the details of these features. (3 pts) 2) In the same Tray 1 , note the five different smaller samples. These samples are examples of the diverse nature of minerals within granites. List at least five criteria you can use to distinguish these samples from one another. (3 pts). Pa 1
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rt 1: Minerals and Mineral Properties The different-colored substances in the piece of granite you just studied are called minerals . A rock is simply an aggregate of minerals. Geologists define a mineral as a naturally occurring, inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Elements on Earth combine and pack together in a variety of energy efficient ways, resulting in the formation of minerals. Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. There are thousands of different minerals identified and painstakingly cataloged by mineralogists. DON'T PANIC! The vast majority of rock-forming minerals are varieties of these six (know these!): Feldspar Quartz Mica Pyroxene Amphibole Calcite Other common minerals include oxides ( ex. : Hematite), salts ( ex. : Halite), and sulfides
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Lab8new - Name: SID: Lab 8: Properties of Minerals and...

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