Lab10 - Name: SID: Lab 10: Sedimentary and Metamorphic...

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SID: Lab 10: Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Press et al., 2004, Ch 7 - 9 Introduction: Previously, we explored rock crystallized from magma. In this lab we will explore basic classification of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. We will also investigate the relationships between environmental conditions and sedimentary rock deposition, as well as the roles temperature and pressure play in the formation of metamorphic rocks. Remember that the diversity of rock in nature is generally continuous, and we are learning interpretive guidelines . The underlying principle for understanding all things geological – and sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, in particular – is that minerals and rocks are stable only under the conditions at which they form. Change the conditions and the rocks will change to adapt to the new conditions. Objectives: Learn to identify common sedimentary rocks (sandstone, shale, limestone and conglomerates), and the depositional environments they imply. Become familiar with the temperature-pressure relationships and tectonic environments associated with metamorphic rocks. Answers: Please answer the indented, numbered questions on the answer sheet at the back of the lab handout. Explanations should be concise; most questions can be answered with a few words, or a sentence or two. All answers should be your own, but we encourage you to discuss and check your answers with 2-3 other students. Discussion and explanation are terrific ways to learn! Labs are graded out of 100 points, and then scaled accordingly. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part 1: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks form by the accumulation of sediment (eroded bits of other, pre- existing rocks). Sediment is deposited in a number of environments, by both moving air and water. Sedimentary rock identification is primarily based on composition. Texture can be used, but texture of a sedimentary rock has a slightly different meaning than texture of an igneous rock . In this lab, texture of a sedimentary rock refers to the origin or type of sediment found in the rock. In this lab we will explore three different types of ‘textures’: clastic, chemical, and biological. The primary minerals found in sedimentary rocks include: quartz , feldspar , clays (including kaolinite , which you saw in the first lab), calcite , dolomite , gypsum and halite . These common minerals are generally either resistant to weathering and/or erosion processes (dissolution and transport), or are directly formed in sedimentary environments (e.g. by chemical precipitation, chemical weathering, etc.). 1) Consider the minerals in Tray 1 : 1) Which of these are correctly termed silicate minerals? 2) Which of these are correctly termed
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2009 for the course EPS 50 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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Lab10 - Name: SID: Lab 10: Sedimentary and Metamorphic...

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