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batteries - CE 108 Electrochemistry of Common Rechargeable...

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CE 108 – Electrochemistry of Common Rechargeable Batteries Rechargeable batteries are widely used in the automotive sector. The technology forcing aspect has been development of batteries suitable for hybrid and all-electric vehicles – we want to be able to store large amounts of energy while limiting battery mass, volume, and cost. Note half-reactions given below are written for battery discharge. Reactions are reversed when the battery is being charged. 1. Lead/Acid Anode: Pb + SO 4 2 " PbSO 4 + 2 e Cathode: PbO 2 + 4 H + + SO 4 2 " + 2 e PbSO 4 + 2 H 2 O Widely used car battery to run starter motor for gasoline engines. Electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Can monitor state of charge of battery by looking at specific gravity of electrolyte (sulfuric acid fraction drops and water increases as battery discharges). Lead is heavy. Battery can be damaged if kept at zero/low state of charge for prolonged periods. 2. Nickel/Cadmium (Ni-Cd)
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