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Unformatted text preview: Introduction 1-1 1. Introduction T his report presents estimates by the United States government of U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for the years 1990 through 2006. A summary of these estimates is provided in Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 by gas and source category in the Trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions chapter. The emission estimates in these tables are presented on both a full molecular mass basis and on a Global Warming Potential (GWP) weighted basis in order to show the relative contribution of each gas to global average radiative forcing. 1 This report also discusses the methods and data used to calculate these emission estimates. In 1992, the United States signed and ratifed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As stated in Article 2 o¡ the UNFCCC, “The ultimate objective o¡ this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Con¡erence o¡ the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions o¡ the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic inter¡erence with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-¡rame su¡fcient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.” 2, 3 Parties to the Convention, by rati¡ying, “shall develop, periodically update, publish and make available...national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using comparable methodologies....” 4 The United States views this report as an opportunity to ¡ulfll these commitments under the UNFCCC. In 1988, preceding the creation o¡ the UNFCCC, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The role o¡ the IPCC is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientifc, technical and socio- economic in¡ormation relevant to understanding the scientifc basis o¡ risk o¡ human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options ¡or adaptation and mitigation (IPCC 2003). Under Working Group 1 o¡ the IPCC, nearly 140 scientists and national experts from more than thirty countries collaborated in the creation of the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA 1997) to ensure that the emission inventories submitted to the UNFCCC are consistent and comparable between nations. The IPCC accepted the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines at its Twel¡th Session (Mexico City, September 11–13, 1996). This report presents in¡ormation in accordance with these 1 See the section below entitled Global Warming Potentials for an explanation of GWP values....
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2009 for the course CE 108 taught by Professor Harley during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.
- Fall '09