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unit 1 learning objectives

unit 1 learning objectives - UNIT I Systems Biology The...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIT I: Systems Biology. The Gene, Chromosomal and Molecular Inheritance Define a system, a complex system. Define systems biology. Explain emergent properties Explain the differences between the systems approach and the reductionist approach. Define a model. Describe the primary goals of systems biology. Draw the structure of an amino group and indicate how amino acids differ. Be able to draw the peptide bond and understand how amino acids form proteins Describe the four levels of protein structure and explain how the structure of a protein is related to its function. Describe the components and functions of nucleotides. Define and be able to identify: phosphodiester bond, nucleotide, purine, pyrimidine, deoxyribose, ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, double -helix. Explain why DNA replication is semiconservative. Describe the structure of DNA and its components using the analogy of a ladder. In a simple drawing, show how nucleotide units are linked together to form a single strand of DNA. Explain the base pairing rules for DNA and how complimentary base pairs bond. Explain the difference between a 5' and 3' strand of DNA, how their ends differ, and where phosphate groups are attached. Explain why DNA replication is continuous for one strand and discontinuous for the other. Describe the process of DNA replication and the role played by each: helicases, primase, single-stranded binding proteins, DNA polymerase, ligase. Understand the major differences between DNA and RNA. Describe the three types of RNA, where and how each is synthesized, and their roles in protein synthesis. Explain why this statement is incorrect: proteins are synthesized from DNA. Given a segment of DNA, determine a corresponding strand of RNA, and vice versa. Compare the function of triplet codons, stop codons, and start codons. Explain why the genetic code is described as a universal degenerate code. Describe the sequence of events in that occur in each step of Transcription and Translation. Explain the process and function of RNA processing, and the difference between pre-mRNA and mRNA. Describe the roles of each in RNA processing: pre-mRNA, intron, exon, 5' cap, Poly(A)Tail, spliceosome. Understand how these are related: DNA, gene, chromosome, genome, karyotype. Describe the Eukaryotic chromosome structure Define "cell cycle" and at what stage in this cycle DNA replication occurs. Understand the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Explain the differences between haploid and diploid cells and where in the human life cycle. Describe and compare the steps and outcomes of mitosis and meiosis. Define and compare the following: homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, independent sister chromosomes. Describe the principles of heredity. Define and understand the relationship of the following: 1) genotype and phenotype, 2) gene and allele, 3) dominant and recessive allele, 4) heterozygous and homozygous genotypes Describe the process and outcome of the principle of segregation. Describe the process and outcome of crossing over. Describe the process and outcome of independent assortment. Predict the outcome of a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross, and explain what a "testcross" is. Explain and give an example of multiple alleles and a polygenic trait. ...
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