Ch12 Worksheet key

Ch12 Worksheet key - I Acids and bases-Bronsted definition...

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I. Acids and bases: -Bronsted definition: Acids are proton (H 1+ ) donors Bases are proton (H 1+ ) acceptors -What makes a X-H bond acidic? The hydrogen atom has to be bound to an electronegative atom. So, H -CH 3 is not acidic, but H -Cl is acidic. -Conjugate acid/base pair differ by only one proton (H 1+ ) HCl + H 2 O H 3 O 1+ + Cl 1- acid base c.acid c.base Practice problems: 1. What is the conjugate acid of each base? a) HPO 4 2- - H 2 PO 4 1- b) OH 1- - H 2 O c) NH 3 – NH 4 1+ d) HSO 4 1- - H 2 SO 4 2. What is the conjugate base of each acid? a) H 2 CO 3 – HCO 1- b) HPO 4 2- - PO 4 3- c) H 3 O 1+ - H 2 O d) HNO 2 – NO 2 1- II. Relative acid/base strength: Strong acids have weak (stable) conjugate bases. How can we stabilize conjugate bases? a) The negative charge of the base is stabilized by a larger ion. H-F < H-Cl < H-Br < H-I (increasing acid strength) b) The negative charge on the base is also stabilized by electron withdrawing groups and resonance. c) Acid strength of polyatomic acids increases as the oxidation state of the central atom becomes more positive. HClO < HClO 2 < HClO 3 < HClO 4 d) Acid strength of polyatomic acids increases as the electronegativity of the central atom increases. HClO is a stronger acid than HBrO
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