Ch1 lecture skeleton

Ch1 lecture skeleton - fuel cell powered car Chemistry is...

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Chemistry is the science of matter, its properties and the changes it undergoes ENERGY renewable fuel coal fuel cell powered car Polyethylene strand (60 million tons produced worldwide annually) SYNTHETIC MATERIALS Taxol -anticancer drug isolated from the Pacific Yew tree in 1967 in RTP -synthetic pathway discovered by Prof.Holton at FSU Environmental impact
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Chemical processes must be understood at the molecular level • Atoms and molecules are invisible •How do we know the nature of these invisible atoms and molecules? Scientific method 1. Make observations (collect data) 2. Make predictions (formulate hypothesis) 3. Carry out experiments to test the prediction (test hypothesis) Observation Hypothesis Experiment Theory (model) Hypothesis Experiment Law - summarizes observations (facts) Law of conservation of mass: Mass is neither created or destroyed. Scientific laws describe observations, they don’t explain them. Some estimates indicate that there are 18 basic physical laws of the universe. Newton’s Laws of Motion: F = ma 2H 2 + O 2 Æ 2H 2 O 2.0 g 2.0 g
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Theory - Well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses. -National Academy of Sciences THEORIES are valid only as long as they are supported by experiment . •Theory of Evolution •Theory of Relativity •Quantum Theory Atomic Theory Originated in 460 BC with the Greek philosopher Democritus. Democritus reasoned that if a piece of matter, such as gold, were divided into smaller and smaller pieces, one would ultimately arrive at a tiny particle of gold that could not be divided further but that still retains the properties of gold. Classification of matter (Dalton’s atomic theory) All matter is made up of ____________ __________ contain one or more of one type of atom (Fe, O 2 , Cu, N 2 ) The atom is the simplest form of a substance that still retains the properties of that substance. (Actually he was wrong…an element is the simplest form of a substance ) ________ contain two or more chemically bound atoms _____________contain two or more chemically bound atoms of different elements Element the simplest form of a substance, one or more of a single type of atom Molecule two or more chemically bound atoms bucky ball – C 60 acetic acid (vinegar) CH 3 COOH sulfur – S 8 ruthenium - Ru Compound Two or more different types of atoms
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A given compound always has the same relative number and type of atoms (same formula) Dalton’s theory cont. H 2 O is the formula for water NH 3 is the formula for ammonia Chemical reactions involve reorganization of atoms. The atoms themselves are not changed.
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Ch1 lecture skeleton - fuel cell powered car Chemistry is...

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