Ch14 - L40: Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 14) - Elementary...

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L40 : Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 14) - Elementary particles and atomic structure. - Nuclear transformations: fission and fusion. - Stability and modes of decay; element 118, 210 Po - Einstein and nuclear transformations: E=mc 2 . - Star chemistry. - Nuclear power and nuclear weapons. - Kinetics of radioactive decay. - Carbon dating (review kinetics). - Nuclear Medicine: X-ray, radiotherapy, positron emission tomography (PET), and more. - The discovery of radioactivity ; “radioactive” personalities: Marie Curie, Lise Meitner, etc.
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The End Game: Master Plan Chapter 14: 3-4 lectures Review: 1-2 lectures Office hours the week of final exam: Tuesday 4-5 pm Thursday 4-5 pm Final Exam: Friday, May 4, 8:00-10:00 a.m. DO NOT BE LATE
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Atomic structure Atom protons 1 1 p charge = +1 mass = 1 neutrons 1 0 n charge = 0 mass = 1 + electrons 0 -1 e charge = -1 mass << 1 Nucleus + Z – Atomic number A - Mass number In atomic mass units A Z X
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Examples of isotopes 4 He 48 Ti 7 Li Chemical identity Z Isotopes same Z , different A Nuclide unique Z and A
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Some isotopes and particles’ names Hydrogen 1 H (1p) Deuterium 2 H or D (1p+1n) Tritium 3 H or T (1p+2n) Carbon isotopes: 12 6 C and 14 6 C (dating) Electron 0 -1 e β -particle Helium-4 nulcleus 4 2 He α -particle High-energy photon 0 0 γ γ -particle (e.g., X-rays) Positron 0 +1 e (antiparticle of electron)
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Stable and unstable isotopes Unstable isotopes: radioactive, spontaneously decompose Example: 14 6 C - > 14 7 N + 0 -1 e Note mass and charge conservation There are about 2,000 known nuclides, ~279 are stable
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Stability conditions Stability is related to the ratio of # of neutrons (N = A-Z) to the # of protons (Z) Atoms with very large atomic numbers are all unstable and are all radioactive. Newest element discovered this year: 118 May be start of new region of stability.
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The Making of Element 118 (Oct. 2006): In this artist's rendering, calcium ions are shown whizzing down an accelerator tube toward a californium target http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/84/i43/8443element118.html http://www.aip.org/pnu/2006/split/797-1.html The scientists bombarded a target enriched in californium ( 249 98 Cf ) with an energetic beam of calcium ions ( 48 20 Ca ). After thousands of hours of bombardment by 2x10 19 calcium projectiles into the target , the team detected 3 nuclear events that signify the creation and nearly instantaneous demise of 3 atoms of element 118 whose lifetime is 1 ms. Element 118 decays to 116, and then to 114 and 112 by emitting alpha particles.
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Radioactive Decay chain of Uranium 238. The daughter nuclides can have very different lifetimes.
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Types of radioactive decay and nuclear transformations 1. α -particle production 238 92 U -> 4 2 He + 234 90 Th A: 238 = 4 + 234; Z: 92 = 2 + 90; n:146(U) => 144(Th) Z new = Z old – 2, A new = A old – 4, n:p - increases 2. β -particle production 234 90 Th -> 0 -1 e + 234 91 Pa A: 234 = 0 + 234 Z: 90 = -1 + 91; n: 144 => 143 Z new =Z old +1, A new =A old , n:p - decreases 3. positron production 22 11 Na -> 0 +1 e + 22 10 Ne A: 22 = 0 + 22 Z: 11 = 1 + 10; n: 11 => 12 Z new =Z old - 1, A new =A old , n:p - increases
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Types of radioactive decay and nuclear transformations - cont-d 4. electron capture 201 80 Hg + 0 -1 e -> 201 79 Au + 0 0 γ A: 201 + 0 = 201 + 0; Z: 80 + (-1) = 79 + 0 Z new =Z old -1, A new =A old , 5. γ− ray production 238 92 U -> 4 2 He + 234 90 Th + γ 6. Spontaneous fission
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Ch14 - L40: Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 14) - Elementary...

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