Ch18 II - L38. Isomers: same composition but different...

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L38. Isomers: same composition but different structure Isomers Structural isomers Stereoisomers Coordination isomers Linkage isomers geometric isomers optical isomers [Cr (NH 3 ) 5 Cl ] SO 4 and [Cr (NH 3 ) 5 SO 4 ] Cl [Co(NH 3 ) 4 ( NO 2 )Cl]Cl and [Co(NH 3 ) 4 ( ONO )Cl]Cl cis-Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 and trans-Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 D-alanine and L-alanine
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Today: Colors of coordination complexes: both ligand and ion affect color Crystal Field Theory
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d-orbital energy splitting for octahedral complexes: proximity of ligand increases energy (e-e- repulsion) Energy and splitting depends on: Orientaion of d orbital Nature of ligand Charge of metal ion Octahedral complex
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Crystal field theory: Magnetic properties and colors of coordination compounds 1. Octahedral field splittings of d-orbitals: Δ o 2/5Δ 3/5Δ d z2 d x2-y2 (e g ) d zy d yx d xz (t 2g ) d-orbital is: near atoms: more repulsion between atoms: less repulsion
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Strength (magnitude) of splitting ( Δ o or Δ t ): Spectrochemical series Determines color in light absorption Ligand effect: CN - > NO 2 - > en > NH 3 > > H 2 O > OH - > F - > > Cl - > Br - > I - Also, charge on the metal, e.g., splitting in Fe 3+ > Fe 2+ Small negative ligands close to metal ion and metal ions with large charge increase repulsion
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Filling in electrons: Aufbau pinciple Two electrons: in one or two orbitals ε 1 E ε 2 ε 1 E ε 2 E= ε 1 ε 1 E ε 2 Low spin case: High-spin case: low spin - large energy gap between orbitals high spin (Hund’s rule) – (near)-degenerate orbitals One electron: in the lowest energy orbital
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Ch18 II - L38. Isomers: same composition but different...

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