# Ch. 9 - Equilibrium Chapter 9 How far would a rxn go What...

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Equilibrium: Chapter 9 How far would a rxn go? What determines the extend of a rxn, i.e., the rxn yield? How can we increase the rxn yield?

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Exothermic -> E a (forward)<E a (backward) -> k 1 >k -1 Forward rxn: R f =k 1 [CH 3 Br][Cl - ] Backward rxn: R b =k -1 [CH 3 Cl][Br - ] At equilibrium: R f =R b k 1 [CH 3 Br] eq [Cl - ] eq =k -1 [CH 3 Cl] eq [Br - ] eq E Rxn coordinate const K k k Cl Br CH Br Cl CH eq eq eq eq = = = - 1 1 3 3 ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ Consider a reversible elementary rxn: k 1 , k -1 CH 3 Br + Cl - <-> CH 3 Cl + Br -
Case 1: K > 1 [A]< [B] -> more products E Rxn coordinate const K k k A B eq eq = = = - 1 1 ] [ ] [ A <-> B k1, k-1 E Rxn coordinate Case 2: K < 1 [A]>[B] -> more reactants E Rxn coordinate Case 3: K=1 [A]=[B] -> equal mixture

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All concentrations and pressures – EQUILIBRIUM values Empirical (but will be justified by thermodynamics later) Valid for ANY reaction (not only for elementary reactions) dD cC bB aA + + b a d c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ = Mass action Law:
As the equilibrium state of a chemical reaction is approached, 1 2 3 4 5 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 1. the rate of the forward reaction approaches zero.

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