ch. 9 end

ch. 9 end - L16: Mass Action Law: Equilibrium constant aA +...

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L16: Mass Action Law: Equilibrium constant - gases: enter as pressure, in atm or torr - dissolved species: enter as concentration, M - pure solids/liquids: do not appear in equations, including solvents which take part in chemical rxn (provided the solutions are dilute) b a d c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ = b B a A d D c C P P P P K = dD cC bB aA + + Today: 1. Reaction Quotient and equilibrium problems 2. Le Chatelier Principle
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Reaction quotient and direction of rxns not at equilibrium b a d c B A D C Q ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ = b B a A d D c C P P P P Q = dD cC bB aA + + Concentrations and pressures – CURRENT values Q=K: rxn at equilibrium, no changes in concentrations Q<K : rxn goes forward (to products) Q>K: rxn goes backward (to reactants)
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3 2 1 2 2 3 H N NH P P P Q = N 2 + 3H 2 Æ 2NH 3 b B a A d D c C P P P P Q = Many sets of pressures of reactants And products can give K
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H 2 +I 2 2HI K=54 (at 700 K) 1. Start P H2 =P I2 =1 atm, P HI =0 atm: Q=0, rxn goes forward @ equilibrium: P HI =1.57 atm, P I2 =P H2 =0.21 atm 2. Start P H2 =P I2 =0 atm, P HI =2 atm Q=infinity, rxn goes backward @ equilibrium: P HI =1.57 atm, P I2 =P H2 =0.21 atm 3. Start P H2 =P I2 =P HI =1 atm Q=1, rxn goes forward @ equilibrium: P HI =1.36 atm, P I2 =P H2 =0.32 atm Equilibrium simulator http://chemmac1.usc.edu/equilibrium/equilibrium.php 2 2 2 I H HI P P P Q = Equilibrium simulator
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Phosgene, COCl 2 , is produced from CO and Cl 2 CO(g) + Cl 2 (g) <-> COCl 2 (g) A gas mixture of CO and Cl 2 is prepared that has initial partial pressures
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ch. 9 end - L16: Mass Action Law: Equilibrium constant aA +...

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