Bio 118 Lecture 1

Bio 118 Lecture 1 - Bio 118 Aug 28,2008 CHAP 1 Woese...

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Bio 118 Aug 28,2008 CHAP 1 Woese Phylogenetic Tree - Based ONLY on small submit rRNA similarly - Other characteristics  are NOT considered! - Can make other Phylogenetic Trees based on any gene DNA sequence  TAXONOMY - Does consider many factors Chap 2 Chemical bonds -Covalent bond -atoms sharing electrons to form strong bonds -ionic strong positive ions intereact with stone –ve ions. Electrons completely transferred -Hydrogen bonds -weaker electrical attractions between polar water or water or ions.
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NB--  ELEMENTS COMMONLY FOUND IN ORGANISIMS HAVE AT LEAST ONE  UNPAIRED VALENCE ELECTRON. ---  UNFILLED ELECTRON ORBITALS ALLOW THE FORMATION OF CHEMICAL  BONDS THAT ATTACH EACH ATOMS TOGETHER. -- ALMOST ALL MOLECULES FOUND IN ORGANISIMS CONTAIN A  C-C  BOND AND  ARE CALLED  ORGANIC MOLECULES Carbon has 4 unpaired electrons -4 double  bonds                             -2 single bonds NB----  PROTEINS ARE POLAR ----  ELECTRONS ARE EQUALLY SHARED IN A HYDROGEN MOLECULE LOOK AT MODEL OF H2O BREAKING UP NaCl ---will be on exam Chap 3 -All proteins are made from just  20 amino acid  subunits -All amino acids have ---> a central carbon atom that bonds to 1) H 2) A Side chain   3) COOH (Carboxyl group) 4) H2N (Amino group)
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Therefore   -In water the amino and carboxyl groups ionize to NH3+ and COO-   -Helps amino acids stay in solution and makes them more reactive  SIDE CHAINS OF AMINO ACID        -The 20 major amino acids        --  differ only in the variable side chain or R- group attached to the central carbon       - R-groups differ in their        ---  size, shape, reactivity and interactions with water LOOK AT FI 3.3 IN TEXT
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2009 for the course SCIENCE 111 taught by Professor Mckessh during the Spring '09 term at Binghamton.

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Bio 118 Lecture 1 - Bio 118 Aug 28,2008 CHAP 1 Woese...

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