chapter23

chapter23 - Chapter 23 Electric Fields Electricity and...

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Chapter 23 Electric Fields
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Electricity and Magnetism, Some History z Many applications z Macroscopic and microscopic z Chinese z Documents suggest that magnetism was observed as early as 2000 BC z Greeks z Electrical and magnetic phenomena as early as 700 BC z Experiments with amber and magnetite
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Electricity and Magnetism, Some History, 2 z 1600 z William Gilbert showed electrification effects were not confined to just amber z The electrification effects were a general phenomena z 1785 z Charles Coulomb confirmed inverse square law form for electric forces
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Electricity and Magnetism, Some History, 3 z 1819 z Hans Oersted found a compass needle deflected when near a wire carrying an electric current z 1831 z Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry showed that when a wire is moved near a magnet, an electric current is produced in the wire
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Electricity and Magnetism, Some History, 4 z 1873 z James Clerk Maxwell used observations and other experimental facts as a basis for formulating the laws of electromagnetism z Unified electricity and magnetism z 1888 z Heinrich Hertz verified Maxwell’s predictions z He produced electromagnetic waves
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Electric Charges z There are two kinds of electric charges z Called positive and negative z Negative charges are the type possessed by electrons z Positive charges are the type possessed by protons z Charges of the same sign repel one another and charges with opposite signs attract one another
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Electric Charges, 2 z The rubber rod is negatively charged z The glass rod is positively charged z The two rods will attract
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Electric Charges, 3 z The rubber rod is negatively charged z The second rubber rod is also negatively charged z The two rods will repel
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More About Electric Charges z Electric charge is always conserved in an isolated system z For example, charge is not created in the process of rubbing two objects together z The electrification is due to a transfer of charge from one object to another
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Conservation of Electric Charges z A glass rod is rubbed with silk z Electrons are transferred from the glass to the silk z Each electron adds a negative charge to the silk z An equal positive charge is left on the rod
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Quantization of Electric Charges z The electric charge, q , is said to be quantized z q is the standard symbol used for charge as a variable z Electric charge exists as discrete packets z q = ± Ne z N is an integer z e is the fundamental unit of charge z | e | = 1.6 x 10 -19 C z Electron: q = - e z Proton: q = + e
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Conductors z Electrical conductors are materials in which some of the electrons are free electrons z Free electrons are not bound to the atoms z These electrons can move relatively freely through the material z Examples of good conductors include copper, aluminum and silver z When a good conductor is charged in a small region, the charge readily distributes itself over the entire surface of the material
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Insulators z Electrical insulators are materials in which all of the electrons are bound to atoms z These electrons can not move relatively freely through the
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chapter23 - Chapter 23 Electric Fields Electricity and...

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