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chapter36

# chapter36 - Chapter 36 Image Formation Notation for Mirrors...

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Chapter 36 Image Formation

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Notation for Mirrors and Lenses z The object distance is the distance from the object to the mirror or lens z Denoted by p z The image distance is the distance from the image to the mirror or lens z Denoted by q z The lateral magnification of the mirror or lens is the ratio of the image height to the object height z Denoted by M
Images z Images are always located by extending diverging rays back to a point at which they intersect z Images are located either at a point from which the rays of light actually diverge or at a point from which they appear to diverge

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Types of Images z A real image is formed when light rays pass through and diverge from the image point z Real images can be displayed on screens z A virtual image is formed when light rays do not pass through the image point but only appear to diverge from that point z Virtual images cannot be displayed on screens
Images Formed by Flat Mirrors z Simplest possible mirror z Light rays leave the source and are reflected from the mirror z Point I is called the image of the object at point O z The image is virtual

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Images Formed by Flat Mirrors, 2 z A flat mirror always produces a virtual image z Geometry can be used to determine the properties of the image z There are an infinite number of choices of direction in which light rays could leave each point on the object z Two rays are needed to determine where an image is formed
Images Formed by Flat Mirrors, 3 z One ray starts at point P , travels to Q and reflects back on itself z Another ray follows the path PR and reflects according to the law of reflection z The triangles PQR and P’QR are congruent

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Images Formed by Flat Mirrors, 4 z To observe the image, the observer would trace back the two reflected rays to P’ z Point P’ is the point where the rays appear to have originated z The image formed by an object placed in front of a flat mirror is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror z |p| = |q|
Lateral Magnification z Lateral magnification, M , is defined as z This is the general magnification for any type of mirror z It is also valid for images formed by lenses z Magnification does not always mean bigger, the size can either increase or decrease z M can be less than or greater than 1 Image height Object height ' h M h ≡=

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Lateral Magnification of a Flat Mirror z The lateral magnification of a flat mirror is +1 z This means that h’ = h for all images z The positive sign indicates the object is upright z Same orientation as the object
Reversals in a Flat Mirror z A flat mirror produces an image that has an apparent left-right reversal z For example, if you raise your right hand the image you see raises its left hand

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Reversals, cont.
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chapter36 - Chapter 36 Image Formation Notation for Mirrors...

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