2_multicausality - Multicausality Example: The "A not...

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Unformatted text preview: Multicausality Example: The "A not B" error 1 A moment of methods Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) Extraneous variable Confounding variable (yikes) 2 Nested timescales Moment-to-moment (real time) - Learning, social interaction Developmental time (months, years) Ontogenetic stages Evolutionary time Timescale of analysis has implications for amount of continuity/discontinuity seen in development 3 1 Continuity and discontinuity Discontinuity at one timescale may be due to discontinuous processes at another timescale 4 Integrating timescales Proximate cause - Developmental, mechanistic explanation "How" question: What are the physiological and behavioral mechanisms at work? Ultimate cause - Evolutionary explanation "Why" question: What is the adaptive significance of the behavior? 5 Barriers to integration "Levels of analysis chauvinism" - reification of biology and culture (Japanese macaque example) Confusion of ultimate with proximate explanations Nominal fallacy: a description becomes an explanation(attachment example) usually teleological 6 2 Attachment and embodied cognition Traditional: attachment caused by "internal working model" - executive controller of behavior 7 Braitenberg: "Vehicles" "Law of uphill analysis and downhill invention" Small, simple changes can yield dramatic differences in behavior Braitenberg: "Vehicles" 3 Braitenberg: "Vehicles" 4 light organic oxygen heat heat organic organic organic oxygen light oxygen light heat organic light heat oxygen 15 5 warmth odor movement texture color shape sound 16 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2009 for the course PSYCH 2090 taught by Professor Goldstein, m during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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