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Unformatted text preview: The able infant: Competence in context What to look for when studying the development of altricial species 1 Imitation: the old (innate) view
Meltzoff & Moore (1977): neonates imitate facial movements (tongue protrusion, mouth opening) Imitation? Mouth-opening repeatedly fails to replicate Jones (1996, 2001)
Infants will tongue-protrude to interesting visual or auditory stimuli Developmental changes in tongue protrusion 3 1 Imitation develops Jones, S.S. (2007). Imitation in infancy: The development of mimicry. Psychological Science Ontogeny of imitative behaviors Jones, S.S. (2007). Imitation in infancy: The development of mimicry. Psychological Science 6 2 Thermoregulation definitions Homeotherm
Warm-blooded, constant temperature High
Ptherm Poikilotherm V02 Low Cool Ambient temp Htherm Warm Cold-blooded, variegated temperature Can tolerate a much wider variation in temp than homeotherm 7 A better dichotomy Endotherm
Heat produced within Ectotherm
Heat drawn from outside 8 Developmental changes Young altricial species behave poikilothermally
Previous work assumes a "primitive" system Asking infant if it is an adult, not to describe itself as an infant 9 3 10 11 A group of adapted pups focus on individual An adapted group of pups focus on huddle
12 4 13 Expt. 1 results 14 Experiment 2: Does huddling conserve metabolic
energy in rat pups?
Examined oxygen metabolism as a better measure of thermo-regulatory ability When cold, pups fire brown adipose tissue (BAT) which is metabolically costly 15 5 Measuring thermoregulation in altricial young Text 16 Inverse relationship between huddle size and metabolic rate 17 Experiment 3: behavior of huddling Is huddling an active regulatory behavior or a fixed response? Hypotheses: low ambient temp => reduced surface area high ambient temp => increased surface area Examined surface area of clump as a function of ambient temp
18 6 Measuring surface area 19 Active regulation of huddle size 20 Examples of pup flow in huddle 21 7 22 Individual pups actively contribute to group behavior 23 Experiment 5: Proximal interactions Hypothesis: pups move in huddle according to individual "rules" of behavior If cold: minimize exposure at surface If hot: maximize exposure at surface 24 8 25 26 Conclusions: Huddle as "superorganism" 27 9 Group thermoregulation as self-organized behavior Huddling derives from individual behavior that is topotaxic and thigmotaxic Huddling can be simulated using autonomousagent models (Schank & Alberts, 1997)
Simple rules: Head-sweeping Wall-following topotaxis Conditional probabilities of activity/inactivity 28 Group thermoregulation as self-organized behavior The model successfully simulates the huddling data at 7 days of age but not 10 days. What must be changed in order for the model to "develop"? Answer: Make the activity state of each individual responsive to the activity state of the pup(s) it contacts.
29 Embodied "cognition" and huddling 30 10 31 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2009 for the course PSYCH 2090 taught by Professor Goldstein, m during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).
- Spring '07
- GOLDSTEIN, M
- Developmental Psychology