7_competence_in_context_2 - The able infant: Competence in...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: The able infant: Competence in context What to look for when studying the development of altricial species 1 Imitation: the old (innate) view Meltzoff & Moore (1977): neonates imitate facial movements (tongue protrusion, mouth opening) Imitation? Mouth-opening repeatedly fails to replicate Jones (1996, 2001) Infants will tongue-protrude to interesting visual or auditory stimuli Developmental changes in tongue protrusion 3 1 Imitation develops Jones, S.S. (2007). Imitation in infancy: The development of mimicry. Psychological Science Ontogeny of imitative behaviors Jones, S.S. (2007). Imitation in infancy: The development of mimicry. Psychological Science 6 2 Thermoregulation definitions Homeotherm Warm-blooded, constant temperature High Ptherm Poikilotherm V02 Low Cool Ambient temp Htherm Warm Cold-blooded, variegated temperature Can tolerate a much wider variation in temp than homeotherm 7 A better dichotomy Endotherm Heat produced within Ectotherm Heat drawn from outside 8 Developmental changes Young altricial species behave poikilothermally Previous work assumes a "primitive" system Asking infant if it is an adult, not to describe itself as an infant 9 3 10 11 A group of adapted pups focus on individual An adapted group of pups focus on huddle 12 4 13 Expt. 1 results 14 Experiment 2: Does huddling conserve metabolic energy in rat pups? Examined oxygen metabolism as a better measure of thermo-regulatory ability When cold, pups fire brown adipose tissue (BAT) which is metabolically costly 15 5 Measuring thermoregulation in altricial young Text 16 Inverse relationship between huddle size and metabolic rate 17 Experiment 3: behavior of huddling Is huddling an active regulatory behavior or a fixed response? Hypotheses: low ambient temp => reduced surface area high ambient temp => increased surface area Examined surface area of clump as a function of ambient temp 18 6 Measuring surface area 19 Active regulation of huddle size 20 Examples of pup flow in huddle 21 7 22 Individual pups actively contribute to group behavior 23 Experiment 5: Proximal interactions Hypothesis: pups move in huddle according to individual "rules" of behavior If cold: minimize exposure at surface If hot: maximize exposure at surface 24 8 25 26 Conclusions: Huddle as "superorganism" 27 9 Group thermoregulation as self-organized behavior Huddling derives from individual behavior that is topotaxic and thigmotaxic Huddling can be simulated using autonomousagent models (Schank & Alberts, 1997) Simple rules: Head-sweeping Wall-following topotaxis Conditional probabilities of activity/inactivity 28 Group thermoregulation as self-organized behavior The model successfully simulates the huddling data at 7 days of age but not 10 days. What must be changed in order for the model to "develop"? Answer: Make the activity state of each individual responsive to the activity state of the pup(s) it contacts. 29 Embodied "cognition" and huddling 30 10 31 11 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 09/19/2009 for the course PSYCH 2090 taught by Professor Goldstein, m during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

Ask a homework question - tutors are online