13_attachment - Harlow How to operationalize love? Role of...

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Unformatted text preview: Harlow How to operationalize love? Role of tactile, nutritive, and thermal stimulation? 1 Harlow The cloth mother, which does not provide nourishment, acts as a secure base, whereas the wire mother, which does provide nourishment, does not This contradicts drive-reduction theories of attachment (Freud) 2 Harlow: later developmental effects? Although soothing tactile sensations provide a baby with a sense of security that is more important to the formation of attachment than food, they are not sufficient Social interactions seem to be necessary for healthy emotional development 3 1 Types of Attachment in humans Secure Child reacts positively to a stranger as long as mother is present Becomes upset when mother leaves and is unlikely to be consoled by a stranger Calms down as soon as mother reappears 4 Types of Attachment in humans Anxious/avoidant Child is indifferent to where mother is sitting May or may not cry when mother leaves Is as likely to be comforted by a stranger as by mother Is indifferent when mother returns 5 Types of Attachment in humans Anxious/resistant Child stays close to mother and appears anxious even when mother is near Becomes very upset when mother leaves but is not comforted by her return Simultaneously seeks renewed contact with mother and resists her efforts to comfort 6 2 Causes of Variation in Patterns of Attachment Parental behaviors Mothers sensitivity to their infants signals of need seems to be related to higher levels of secure attachment (direction of causality?) Characteristics of the child Infants who had spent more time playing with objects than interacting sociably with their mothers were more likely to display signs of insecure attachment later on Family influences Maternal depression and marital discord appear to be related to lower levels of secure attachment Cultural influences Children who slept at home displayed a significantly higher level of secure 7 attachments Cultural differences in development of attachment 8 Outcomes Children who had been assessed as securely attached in infancy: More socially skilled Formed more friendships Displayed more self-confidence Were less dependent More open in expressing their feelings Formed closer relationships with peers Early interactions seem to provide an "internal working model" for subsequent relationships 9 3 Following study (Hay, 1977) 4.3 m 4.9 m 10 Who will the infant follow? Exptr Infant Mom 11 Who will the infant follow? Exptr Mom 50% 50% Infant 12 4 Following toy versus mother Mom Infant Toy 13 Following toy versus mother Mom Infant 75% Toy 14 Comparison of infant behavior Ainsworth follows mom only infant upset, afraid of stranger Hay follows mom or stranger infant exploring novel things 15 5 Comparison of stranger behavior Ainsworth looming parent walk away model behavior after parent (can smile, look back) Hay model proximity after 16 Behavioral and neural plasticity Structure of a neuron: 17 Behavioral and neural plasticity Neural architecture changes over time 18 6 Behavioral and neural plasticity Neural architecture changes over time Synaptogenesis Synaptic pruning 19 Behavioral and neural plasticity Plasticity: ability to alter structure or function of the nervous system Neurons are inherently plastic and constantly modifiable Types of change: Morphology (dendritic generation and synaptic receptor generation/elimination) Number (cell death) Connectivity (synapse elimination) 20 7 ...
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