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Ch 1 (Part II) - Fat Intake Typical daily intake(< 30 rec...

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8/31/2009 1 General Principles of Nutrition Chapter 1 Part 2 Fat Intake Typical daily intake (< 30% rec) 38% 34% plant 66% animal sources 15% saturated (<10% rec) Cardiovascular Disease Atherosclerosis Plaque builds on artery walls Inflammation Causes Endothelium is damaged Inflammatory response macrophages Blood clots form Minerals harden Cardiovascular Disease Blood clot increases in size Restricts blood flow Blood pressure increases Angina Pain or pressure around the heart Heart attack Restricted blood flow to heart Transient ischemic attack or stroke
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8/31/2009 2
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8/31/2009 3 Cardiovascular Disease Total cholesterol Desirable levels < 200 mg/dl Borderline = 200 239 mg/dl High levels = > 240 mg/dl LDL/HDL ratio Low risk 3.3 4.4 Average risk 4.4 7.1 Moderate risk 7.1 11.0 High risk >11.0 Lipids Stability Oxygen exposure causes spoilage rancid PUFA’s spoil more easily Increase saturation Hydrogenation Prolongs shelf life – prevents oxidation Alters texture – liquids solids Hydrogenation
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8/31/2009 4 Hydrogenation Trans Fatty Acids Changed from cis to trans configuration and act like saturated fats in the body Partial hydrogenation Higher melting point Trans Fatty Acids Risk Factors Breast cancer Colon cancer Prostate cancer
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