Exam 2 study guide - Ryan Zukowski Earthquakes: Sudden...

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Ryan Zukowski Earthquakes : Sudden release of elastic stored energy along faults Elastic Rebound Theory: EQ’s result from the release of elastic stored energy by slipping on faults (sudden change in direction of plate motion) Fault- The fracture in the earth’s crust where movement occurs Seismic Waves- Vibrations that are released from focus that moves out spherically from an EQ Focus- First energy release *Primary waves are the first to arrive (Compressional) Tsunamis are caused by the movement on the seafloor Surface Waves- mostly ground motion during EQ (don’t travel through liquid)(slower than both P and S- waves) P waves- Don’t usually cause EQ damage to buildings (Can travel through solid, liquid, or gas) Building Damage- Built on BEDROCK then not in danger of collapsing on a water saturated plain (Most damage would occur on loose, unconsolidated, wet sediments) *Extra units in the Richter scale involves a 10 fold increase in seismograph deflection *Large EQ would occur at Antofagasta, Chile rather than CO, Hawaii, Australia *Arizona is part of the Basin and Range province of North America *Type of fault in Arizona- Normal Fault (Pulling apart) *Surface Waves cause little or no damage *Earth’s outer core is in Liquid state because S-waves don’t pass through it Faults: Normal- Caused by tensional stress (Extension, mid-ocean ridge, cont. rift, subduction zone) Reverse thrust- compressional stresses, continue collision zones and sub. Zones Transform/strike-slip- Shear stresses found near transform boundaries (San. Andreas fault and ocean transform boundary) Volcanoes/Magma:
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course GEO 33 taught by Professor Jim during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Exam 2 study guide - Ryan Zukowski Earthquakes: Sudden...

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