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Ch. 11

# Ch. 11 - CHAPTER 11 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II...

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1 CHAPTER 11 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations

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2 Chapter Goals Aqueous Acid-Base Reactions 1. Calculations Involving Molarity 2. Titrations 3. The Mole Method and Molarity 4. Equivalent Weights and Normality Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. The Half-Reaction Method 2. Adding in H + , OH - , or H 2 O to Balance Oxygen or Hydrogen 3. Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions
3 Calculations Involving Molarity Example 11-1: If 100.0 mL of 1.00 M NaOH and 100.0 mL of 0.500 M H2SO4 solutions are mixed, what will the concentration of the resulting solution be? What is the balanced reaction? It is very important that we always use a balanced chemical reaction when doing stoichiometric calculations.

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4 Calculations Involving Molarity Reaction Ratio: 2 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol 2 mmol Before Reaction: 100 mmol 50 mmol 0 mmol 0 mmol After Reaction: 0 mmol 0 mmol 50 mmol 100 mmol O H 2 SO Na SO H + NaOH 2 2 4 2 4 2 +
5 Calculations Involving Molarity What is the total volume of solution? 100.0 mL + 100.0 mL = 200.0 mL What is the sodium sulfate amount, in mmol? 50.0 mmol What is the molarity of the solution? M = 50 mmol/200 mL = 0.250 M Na 2 SO 4

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6 Stoichiometry of Acid-Base Reactions 2 NaOH + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O (NaOH) + (H 2 SO 4 ) (OH - ) + (H+) (Na 2 SO 4 ) + (H 2 O) (H 2 O) Note: Height proportional to moles – for equivalent amounts of acid and base Width greater for multiple “equivalents” of a constituent – e. g. H + or OH - Formula equation Net ionic equation
7 Calculations Involving Molarity Example 11-2: If 130.0 mL of 1.00 M KOH and 100.0 mL of 0.500 M H 2 SO 4 solutions are mixed, what will be the concentration of KOH and K 2 SO 4 in the resulting solution? What is the balanced reaction?

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8 Calculations Involving Molarity 2 KOH + H SO K SO + 2 H O 2 4 2 4 2 Reaction Ratio: 2 mmol 1 mmol 1 mmol 2 mmol Before Reaction: 130 mmol 50 mmol 0 mmol 0 mmol Consumed 100 mmol 50 mmol 0 0 After Reaction: 30 mmol 0 mmol 50 mmol 100 mmol
9 Calculations Involving Molarity What is the total volume of solution? 130.0 mL + 100.0 mL = 230.0 mL What are the potassium hydroxide and potassium sulfate amounts? 30.0 mmol & 50.0 mmol What is the molarity of the solution? M = 30.0 mmol/230.0 mL = 0.130 M KOH M = 50.0 mmol/230.0 mL = 0.217 M K 2 SO 4

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10 Calculation Steps For Reaction 1. Find the limiting reactant 2. Determine moles of other reactant needed to react with it 3. Subtract number of moles of all reactants consumed 4. Determine moles of each reactant left 5. Determine moles of products 6. Determine final volume 7. Divide moles by volume Molar concentration
11 Calculations Involving Molarity Example 11-3: What volume of 0.750 M NaOH solution would be required to completely neutralize 100 mL of 0.250 M H 3 PO 4 ? You do it! You do it!

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12 Calculations Involving Molarity NaOH L 0.100 NaOH mol 0.750 NaOH L 1 PO H mol 1 NaOH mol 3 PO H L 1 PO H mol 0.250 PO H L 0.100 = NaOH L ?
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