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Ch. 12 Notes - 12 Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory 1...

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1 12 Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory
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2 CHAPTER GOALS 1. Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 2. Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases 3. Pressure 4. Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship 5. Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale 6. Standard Temperature and Pressure 7. The Combined Gas Law Equation 8. Avogadro’s Law and the Standard Molar Volume
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3 CHAPTER GOALS 9. Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation 10. Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances 11. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 12. Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases 13. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 14. Diffusion and Effusion of Gases 15. Real Gases: Deviations from Ideality
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4 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases The density of gases is much less than that of solids or liquids. Densities (g/mL) Solid Liquid Gas H 2 O 0.917 0.998 0.000588 CCl 4 1.70 1.59 0.00503 Gas molecules must be very far apart compared to liquids and solids.
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5 Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Gas % by Volume N 2 78.09 O 2 20.94 Ar 0.93 CO 2 0.03 He, Ne, Kr, Xe 0.002 CH 4 0.00015 H 2 0.00005 Composition of Dry Air
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6 Pressure Pressure is force per unit area. – lb/in 2 – N/m 2 Gas pressure as most people think of it.
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Pressure Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer. Definitions of standard pressure – 76 cm Hg – 760 mm Hg – 760 torr – 1 atmosphere – 101.3 kPa Hg density = 13.6 g/mL
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8 Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship • V 1/P or V= k (1/P) or PV = k • P 1 V 1 = k 1 for one sample of a gas. • P 2 V 2 = k 2 for a second sample of a gas. • k 1 = k 2 for the same sample of a gas at the same T. Thus we can write Boyle’s Law mathematically as P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
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9 Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship Example 12-1: At 25 o C a sample of He has a volume of 4.00 x 10 2 mL under a pressure of 7.60 x 10 2 torr. What volume would it occupy under a pressure of 2.00 atm at the same T?
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10 Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship Notice that in Boyle’s law we can use any pressure or volume units as long as we consistently use the same units for both P 1 and P 2 or V 1 and V 2 . Use your intuition to help you decide if the volume will go up or down as the pressure is changed and vice versa.
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11 Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship absolute zero = -273.15 0 C
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12 Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship Charles’s law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature at constant pressure. – Gas laws must use the Kelvin scale to be correct. Relationship between Kelvin and centigrade. K = o C + 273.15
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13 Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship Mathematical form of Charles’ law.
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