AnatomyTestOneOutline

AnatomyTestOneOutline - Chapter One Anatomy is the study of...

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Chapter One Anatomy is the study of structure. Physiology is the study of function Gross anatomy: study of structure visible to the naked eye Histology: viewing of individual cells under a microscope Surface anatomy: study of the external structure of the body Systemic anatomy: study of one organ at a time Region anatomy: study of multiple organs in a given region of the body Comparative anatomy: study of more than one species in order to examine the structural similarities and differences. LEVELS OF HUMAN STRUCTURE Organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cells Organelles Properties to distinguish between living and non-living things: Organization : expend a lot of energy, and a breakdown is accompanied by disease and often death Cellular composition : made of one or more cells Biochemical unity : all living things have DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates Metabolism : take in molecules from the environment and chemically change them into molecules that can be used to form structures, control physiology or provide energy Excitability : ability to sense and react to stimuli Homeostasis : ability for the internal conditions to remain stable in spite of the changes outside of the body Growth : growth of the body through chemical change
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Development : any change in form or function over a lifetime Reproduction : ability to produce a copy of itself Evolution : all living things show a genetic change from generation to generation Chapter Two Cytology: the study of cells The Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells Cells are the smallest physiological unit Organism activity is based on cellular activity Cells can only come from preexisting cells All cells have similar molecular characteristics Cell Shapes and Sizes Squamous: thin flat scaly shape. Lines the esophagus and forms the epidermis Cuboidal: squarish, equal in height and width. Liver cells are an example Columnar: distinctly taller than wide. Inner lining of the stomach and intestines are an example Polygonal: having irregularly angular shapes with 4+ sides. Stellate: having multiple pointed processes stemming from the body of a cell. Nerve cells are an example Spheroid: round to oval. Egg cells are an example Discoid: Disc shaped cells. Red blood cells are an example Fusiform: spindle shaped cells, thick in the center and tapered at the ends. Muscle cells are an example Fibrous: long slender and threadlike. Skeletal muscle is an example. Cells are measured in micrometers (µm) Basal: side that faces other cells
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Apical: faces the external environment Components of a cell: Outer cellular components ICF: Intercellular fluid ECF: Extracellular fluid, all fluids not contained in the cell Plasma membrane: also called the phospholipid bilayer forms the surface boundary of the cell Phospholipids: about 75% of molecules called phospholipids. Two layers, one side
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2009 for the course BIOL 120 taught by Professor Heimgartner during the Spring '09 term at Idaho.

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AnatomyTestOneOutline - Chapter One Anatomy is the study of...

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