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Criminal_Procedure NYU School of Law Schaffer F04

Criminal_Procedure NYU School of Law Schaffer F04 -...

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C RIMINAL P ROCEDURE O UTLINE P ROFESSOR S CHAFFER F ALL 2004 I. I NTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 3 II. S EARCH & S EIZURE ...................................................................................................................... 3 A. I NTRODUCTION TO THE F OURTH A MENDMENT ................................................................................. 3 B. W HAT IS A S EARCH ? .................................................................................................................. 3 C. T HE T ENSION B ETWEEN THE R EASONABLENESS AND W ARRANT C LAUSES .......................................... 4 D. D EMONSTRATING P ROBABLE C AUSE .............................................................................................. 5 E. P ROBABLE C AUSE , S PECIFICITY , AND R EASONABLENESS ................................................................... 6 F. E XECUTING THE W ARRANT —T HE S CREENING M AGISTRATE ............................................................. 7 G. A RRESTS & M ATERIAL W ITNESSES .............................................................................................. 7 H. S TOP AND F RISK ........................................................................................................................ 9 1. D EFINING A S TOP : T HE L INE BETWEEN A S TOP AND AN E NCOUNTER .............................................. 10 2. R EASONABLE S USPICION .......................................................................................................... 11 3. L IMITED S EARCHES FOR P OLICE P ROTECTION UNDER THE T ERRY D OCTRINE ..................................... 12 4. B RIEF AND LIMITED D ETENTIONS : T HE L INE BETWEEN “S TOP AND “A RREST ............................... 12 I. S EARCH I NCIDENT TO A RREST ; P RETEXTUAL S TOPS AND A RRESTS ; P LAIN V IEW S EIZURES .................. 14 1. S EARCH I NCIDENT TO A RREST ................................................................................................... 14 2. P RETEXTUAL S TOPS AND A RRESTS ............................................................................................. 15 3. P LAIN V IEW S EIZURES ............................................................................................................ 15 J. A UTOMOBILES AND O THER M OVABLE O BJECTS : E XCEPTIONS TO THE W ARRANT R EQUIREMENT .......... 16 K. E XIGENT C IRCUMSTANCES ......................................................................................................... 17 L. A DMINISTRATIVE S EARCHES ....................................................................................................... 18 M. C ONSENT S EARCHES ................................................................................................................. 20 N. W IRETAPPING , E AVESDROPPING , ETC ........................................................................................... 22 III. T HE E XCLUSIONARY R ULE ......................................................................................................... 23 A. F RUITS OF AN I LLEGAL S EARCH .................................................................................................. 24 B. I NDEPENDENT S OURCE AND I NEVITABLE D ISCOVERY D OCTRINES ..................................................... 25 IV. S ELF -I NCRIMINATION AND C ONFESSIONS ...................................................................................... 26 A. T HE F IFTH A MENDMENT AND S ELF -I NCRIMINATION ...................................................................... 26 1. P OLICIES .............................................................................................................................. 26 2. W HAT IS C OMPULSION ............................................................................................................ 27 3. T O W HOM D OES THE P RIVILEGE B ELONG ? W HAT IS P ROTECTED ? ................................................ 27 4. P ROCEDURAL A SPECT OF S ELF -I NCRIMINATION ............................................................................ 29 B. C ONFESSIONS AND D UE P ROCESS ................................................................................................ 29 C. C ONFESSIONS UNDER THE F IFTH A MENDMENT : M IRANDA AND I TS I MPACT ...................................... 30 1. A PPLYING M IRANDA ............................................................................................................... 31 2. W AIVER OF M IRANDA R IGHTS .................................................................................................. 33 D. C ONFESSIONS UNDER THE S IXTH A MENDMENT .............................................................................. 35 1. D ELIBERATE E LICITATION ........................................................................................................ 35 2. W AIVER ............................................................................................................................... 36 3. F RUITS OF A S IXTH A MENDMENT V IOLATION ............................................................................... 37 VI. T HE G RAND J URY ..................................................................................................................... 37 Crim Pro - 1
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A. E VIDENCE BEFORE THE G RAND J URY ........................................................................................... 37 B. P OWERS OF I NVESTIGATION ........................................................................................................ 38 VII. T HE R IGHT TO E FFECTIVE A SSISTANCE OF C OUNSEL .................................................................. 38 VIII. D ISCOVERY ............................................................................................................................ 41 A. S PECIFICS OF D EFENSE D ISCOVERY ............................................................................................. 41 B. P ROSECUTOR S C ONSTITUTIONAL D UTY TO D ISCLOSE .................................................................... 41 IX. G UILTY P LEAS AND B ARGAINING : R EQUIREMENTS FOR A V ALID P LEA .......................................... 42 X. C ONSTITUTIONALLY B ASED P ROOF R EQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 44 A. P ROOF B EYOND A R EASONABLE D OUBT ...................................................................................... 44 B. S COPE OF THE R EASONABLE D OUBT R EQUIREMENT ....................................................................... 44 C. P ROOF OF A LTERNATIVE M EANS OF C OMMITTING A S INGLE C RIME ................................................. 45 XI. T RIAL BY J URY ......................................................................................................................... 45 A. R EQUISITE F EATURES OF THE J URY ............................................................................................. 45 B. J URY S ELECTION AND C OMPOSITION ............................................................................................ 46 C. P EREMPTORY C HALLENGES ........................................................................................................ 47 D. P RESERVING THE I NTEGRITY OF D ELIBERATIONS ............................................................................ 48 E. T HE T RIAL J UDGE AND THE R IGHT TO J URY T RIAL ........................................................................ 48 Crim Pro - 2
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I. I NTRODUCTION II. S EARCH & S EIZURE A. I NTRODUCTION TO THE F OURTH A MENDMENT Fourth Amendment: reasonableness clause: “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated,” warrants clause: “and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to searched, and the person or things to be seized.”
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