conlaw_percival_spring2006 - Constitutional Law Outline I...

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Constitutional Law Outline I. The Constitution a. Article I- Legislative Power i. Section 2: House of Representatives ii. Section 3: Senate iii. iv. Section 8: Powers of Congress v. Section 9: Limits of Congress vi. Section 10: Limits on State Power b. Article II- Executive Power i. Section 1: Electoral Power and Presidential Election ii. Section 1, Clause 6: Presidential Succession iii. Section 2: Presidential Powers iv. Section 3: Duties and Powers of President c. Article III- Judicial Power d. e. Article V: Procedures for Amendments f. Article VI: Supremacy Clause 1. Article III allows suits involving public ministers (meant to apply only to foreign  dignitaries) 2. Article III could be a floor, but not a limit on Court’s original jurisdiction 3. Standing requirement derives from Article III’s “cases and controversies” requirement II. Federal Judicial Power a. Authority for Judicial Review i. Federal Judgments 1. Marbury v. Madison a. Creates authority for judicial review of executive actions i. can be sued only where the government has duties with respect to  individual rights (non-political/ministerial acts), not discretionary acts  b. Establishes Article III is ceiling of federal court jurisdiction i. Congress cannot expand the original jurisdiction of Supreme Court ii. Congress cannot authorize federal courts to hear cases beyond what is  specified in Article III c. Establishes authority for judicial review of legislative actions 2. Authority for judicial review in Constitution a. Article III, Section 2- sets up judicial structure of federal government b. Article VI- supremacy clause ii. State Judgments 1. Judicial review of state judgments established in  Martin v. Hunters Lessee  iii. Reasons for judicial review: 1. Constitution has written limits that would be meaningless without judicial review 1
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2. Those who apply the law must determine its validity 3. Article III gives Court power to hear cases arising under the Constitution 4. Oath of office 5. Supremacy clause b. Limits on Federal Judicial Power i. Interpretive Limits     - judicial restraints by the judges themselves 1. Competing Theories of Constitutional Interpretation a. Originilasm: follow framers’ intent i. Judges should only protect values clearly states in the text of  Constitution or clearly implicit from framers’ intent ii. Advantage: desirable to limit anti-majoritarian nature of Constitution iii. Disadvantage: mis-defines democracy (concerned with protecting  rights of minorities); impossible to apply since text often vague;  framers intent often unknowable (who are they- drafters or ratifiers?); 
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conlaw_percival_spring2006 - Constitutional Law Outline I...

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