Chapter 02

Chapter 02 - Chapter 2 The Structure of Genes and Genomes...

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Chapter 2 The Structure of Genes and Genomes DNA Overview Each species has a uniquely fundamental set of genetic information, its genome. The genome is composed of one or more DNA molecules, each organized as a chromosome. The prokaryotic genomes are mostly single circular chromosomes. Eukaryotic genomes consist of one or two sets of linear chromosomes confined to the nucleus. A gene is a segment of DNA that is transcribed into a functional RNA molecule. Introns interrupt many eukaryote genes. Viral genomes consist of either DNA or RNA. Nature of DNA Transformation (uptake of foreign DNA) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes has repeatedly shown that DNA is hered material. DNA is accurately replicated prior to each cell division. DNA encodes proteins needed by the cell. DNA is capable of mutation, providing raw material for evolutionary change. The DNA nucleotide Building block of DNA (and RNA) Deoxyribose (pentose sugar), with 3’ –OH Phosphate (on 5’ carbon) Nitrogenous base purine adenine, guanine pyrimidine thymine, cytosine The double helix DNA normally consists of two antiparallel polynucleotide chains sugar–phosphate backbone phosphodiester bonds 5’ to 3’ connection
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Chapter 02 - Chapter 2 The Structure of Genes and Genomes...

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