Chapter 01

Chapter 01 - Chapter 1 Genetics and the Organism DNA,...

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Genetics and the Organism DNA, genes, organisms, evolution Overview Hereditary material is DNA, a double helix of complementary polynucleotides. Genes are segments of DNA encoding the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Hereditary variation is caused by variant forms of genes known as alleles. Alleles can be studied at many levels. Each species has its own distinctive pool of genes. Evolution is a consequence of genetic changes in a population over time. Genetics Experimental science of heredity Grew out of need of plant and animal breeders for greater understanding of inheritance of economi c important characters Gregor Mendel: discovered principles of heredity Today, genes are explained in molecular terms Physical and chemical basis Genome: basic complement of DNA of an organism haploid: one copy of genome (fungi, algae, bacteria) diploid: two copies of genome (plants, animals) Genes: regions of chromosomal DNA encoding polypeptides different genes on each chromosome homologs: chromosomes with same genes in diploids, one homolog inherited from each parent
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2009 for the course MCB 5896 taught by Professor Zhang during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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Chapter 01 - Chapter 1 Genetics and the Organism DNA,...

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