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Unformatted text preview: Political Order and Social Control How do anthropologists study political structure Study Power the ability to influence people or cause them to do things they would not do otherwise 2 types coercive and persuasive Authority exercise of legitimate power How these are distributed within community? How decisions are made? Political organizations vary across cultures Types of Political Organizations
Elman Service evolutionaryecological model criteria 4 Basic Types of Political Structure (levels of sociocultural integration) Bands Tribes Chiefdoms States Bands Egalitarian social structure No separate identifiable political institution All aspects of social life are kin or family based Found among foraging societies Size 1050 Foraging bands believed to be earliest form of societal organization Equal access to status mechanisms No single authority leadership is informal Tribes Similar to bands in their forms of leadership and they are egalitarian Do not have a single leader with authority Leaders generally do not have coercive power Leaders rely on persuasive power Headman or Big Men Leadership depends on ability to organize others for example a feast Political institutions are indistinct Tribes Correlate to horticultural and pastoral food procurement strategies Larger populations 50250 Property ownership in the hands of lineages and clans Kinship based social relations Sodalities Group whose membership is based on common interest rather than on kinship affiliation or residence group Age sets Chiefdoms Hereditary office of the Chief Authority is held by the person who holds this office Chief also has prestige and status (ascribed), which is also associated with chief's family 2 level stratification not available to everyone, thus, not egalitarian Office demands tribute to be paid Often in the form of surplus Surplus is redistributed (redistributive economic system) States Most recent form of political organization to emerge Constitute themselves legally Political and economic stratification Wealth is not equally distributed Specialization at every level Laws that are administered by the state Specific people are authorized and empowered to enforce the laws States Food procurement strategies intensive agriculture with large surplus Merchant class part of extensive market system of distribution Associated with the rise of cities Nationstate (shares both) Nation group that has a symbolic identity, based in geography, culture, history, religion etc State designates a type of political structure Rank and Stratification Morton Fried a different approach to classifying societies based on their organization 4 types of societies focus is on equality and inequality Egalitarian equal access to prestige, wealth and power, foraging bands Rank societies individuals gain wealth and prestige through persuasive power, thus, inequities, most tribes and chiefdoms Stratified societies unequal access to resources, societies based on inequity Stratified state societies have institutions in which coercive power and authority are determined Social stratification inequity between groups based on economic wealth, power, and prestige Class group of people with similar relationship to these mechanisms Social Control Disorder occurs when people deviate from accepted norms and rules of a society Social control societal mechanisms for ensuring that people behave Murder Informal Means Bands and Tribes Formal Means Chiefdoms and States War and Peace Ex. Social pressures, ridicule, gossip, ostracism Laws cultural rules backed up by sanctions Often found in religious value systems Conflict between groups ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2009 for the course ANTH 1000 taught by Professor Sabem during the Spring '08 term at UConn.
- Spring '08