Unformatted text preview: Subsistence Strategies Foraging Food procurement that involves collecting wild plants and animal foods Earliest adaptive strategy used by humans 98% of human existence Foraging vs. Hunting and gathering Hunting vs. gathering Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Technological mastery of the environment Not just tools includes skills and knowledge Nomadic Carrying Capacity: Determined by What? Group organization: Bands Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Distribution of Resources Reciprocity Generalized reciprocity Balanced reciprocity Negative reciprocity Egalitarian Diets Often nutritionally balanced Features Associated with Foraging Lifeways Leisure Time Low energy budgets Kinship Division of Labor Age Gender Flexibility Horticulture A food procurement strategy that is based on a simple level of crop production Plant domestication began Rice in SE Asia, millet in Africa, wheat in Asia Minor, corn in Mexico Areas with consistent rainfall for cultivation or in floodplains Features Associated with Horticultural Lifeways Production based on extensive technology Need to manipulate nature not just understand it Also supplement with foraged foods Sedentary Typically until the soil is exhausted Slash and burn or swidden Yanomamo of Venezuela and Brazil Features Associated with Horticultural Lifeways Group size
Larger than foragers Increased carrying capacity of the land due to food production Requires more organization Kinship based societies Property and ownership Unlike foragers, horticulturalists own property Ownership is kin based, recognition of traditional land rights passed from generation to generation Features Associated with Horticultural Lifeways Diets Poorer overall nutrition compared to foragers Not as diverse Leisure Time High energy budgets More calories spent per person per week to procure basic survival needs Economic Production Generalists Features Associated with Horticultural Lifeways Division of Labor Well-defined, along gender lines Anthropologists speculate that the development of food cultivation was the beginning of differences in the status of men and women Distribution Generalized reciprocity within nuclear family and among close kin Outside balanced reciprocity Kula exchange among the Trobriand Islanders Pastoralism Lifeways that focus on the domestication of animals Domestication of plants and animals around same time First combination of both Many different animals: cattle, sheep, reindeer, goats, camels, etc. Animals rarely killed for food, milk, blood etc. Nuer of the southern Sudan in Africa Features Associated with Pastoral Lifeways Production based on sophisticated tech. Nomadic Nomadic pastoralism transhumance Population Large due to increased carrying capacity of land that is relatively infertile Property Ownership Animals Fewer material possessions than horticulturalist due to mobility Features Associated with Pastoral Lifeways Diet Better than horticulturalists Access to more complete forms of protein Also maintain small gardens or trade with neighboring horticultural groups Energy budget higher than foragers Kinship based societies Division of labor by age and gender Features Associated with Pastoral Lifeways Distribution of goods similar to horticultural groups Horticultural and Pastoral Groups Today Contact with outside groups causing changes Example, participation in cash economy Tourism The Trobriand Islanders War The Nuer Agriculture A subsistence-procurement strategy that is based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods Continuum from simple horticulture to intensive agriculture Features Associated with Agricultural Lifeways More levels of technology
Irrigation Individuals do not know all accumulated knowledge Greater specialization Sedentary lifestyle Fertilizers replace lost nutrients allowing for continued cultivation Features Associated with Agricultural Lifeways Stratified Societies Organized into states Carrying capacity increases dramatically and thus so does population Merchants, food producers and layers of government develop to organize food distribution Property Ownership Yes, including material possession beyond those needed for survival Features Associated with Agricultural Lifeways Diet Poor Lack of diversity Lower Energy Budget than horticulturalists use of machines Economic production specialization Production for sale Currency is then exchanged for other goods Division of Labor varies by culture Features Associated with Agricultural Lifeways Distribution Redistribution System of exchange in which taxes (which may be in the form of an actual portion of one's crop or a percentage of one's resources) are paid to a central authority. Surplus is redistributed to the population in the form of goods and services Market Exchange Involves goods or services being traded or sold at a market Supply and demand dictates the prices Currency (money) is often used ...
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- Spring '08
- Bronisław Malinowski, lifeways, Horticultural Lifeways, Agricultural Lifeways