Biological_Evidence

Biological_Evidence - I RECOGNITION II IDENTIFICATION III...

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Unformatted text preview: I. RECOGNITION II. IDENTIFICATION III. INDIVIDUALIZATION Pattern Analysis Chemical Screening Marker Determination 7KH ([DPLQDWLRQ RI %LRORJLFDO (YLGHQFH 6FUHHQLQJ PHWKRGV DQG &RQILUPDWLRQ RI ERG\ IOXLGV Interpretation Species Determination Non-genetic Genetic Sex Age Race Menstrual Origin RFLP PCR Tests: - PM / DQA1 - D1S80 - STRs mtDNA Gender Red Cell Antigens Isoenzymes Serum Proteins Hb variants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dentification of Blood 1. Chemical screening test (Kastle-Meyer). + result = could be blood. phenolphthalin + Hb reduced (colorless) H2O2 phenolphthalein oxidized (pink) 2. Confirmatory test. Detect human hemoglobin by Ouchterlony or rapid immunoassay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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2009 for the course MCB 3416 taught by Professor Ladd during the Fall '08 term at UConn.

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