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Unformatted text preview: History 1003 Test 1 I. 1500 Europe A. Peasants most people during this time are peasants (about 80%) 1. Peasants were farmers 2. They lived in rural areas 3. Very little owned their own land; most hired themselves out 4. The largest group of peasants was sharecroppers who rented land and paid with crops a. The landowners usually got 50-60% of the crops 5. They lived difficult lives: a. The average age for men was 40; the average age for women was mid-30s due to child bearing b. There were very few doctors i. They were uneducated and ended up killing most of their patients. c. Many died of infections d. of the children died before age 5 e. There were very few roads f. Couldnt transport heavy things anywhere g. Transportation peasants almost never went even a mile or farther from where they were even born! i. Had no means of transportation; most carriages and horses were expensive and most barely had a cow or oxen ii. Roads werent paved (all mud), and they only went from villages into forests They were especially unusable in the winter iii. No one went anywhere!!! h. Communication-- there was barely any communication i. No education; most couldnt read or write 4 out of 10 men knew how to sign their names; though this didnt mean they could read 1 out of 10 women could sign their names i. Rural areas did not have post offices or anything like it j. Living conditions were horrible i. Most houses were one room shared with the animals ii. Peasants did not bathe regularly or eat well. k. In 1500, people and animals were smaller than today i. Sheeps were the size of a cocker spaniel ii. B/c animals were small, there was not a lot of manure for crops which meant very little crops were grown iii. The average height of a man was 51-52; the average height of a woman was 49 This mainly had to do with nutrition 6. Peasants were ignorant; though some of Europe had education 7. B/c they were ignorant, they explained everything with religion a. Most didnt understand religion, but understood Rites of Passage 8. Rites of Passage -- markers of events in someones life like birth (baptism), Confirmation, marriage, death (burial) a. The Church was there for them during these moments b. People relied on church to set an example and was a mystery c. Peasants understood that a priest was a ceremonial man who regulated their moments in life that were critical! 9. Harvest is the most important thing a. The grain grown in Europe was wheat b. When it looked like bad weather, they would ring the church bell to wake up God i. They believed He would wake up and help them c. If the storm came anyway, the bells were blamed and publicly whipped i. This belief held out until 1830s and 1840s!...
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