notes. test 2.

notes. test 2. - February 17, 2009 1715-1789: The Old...

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February 17, 2009 1715-1789: The Old Regime (what it was like before the revolution). Things about the regime that were not true: enlightened, industry, revolution. What was the old regime? The Old Regime began with the weather getting better. Around 1740, temps began to moderate significantly. As the weather began to get better, there was more crops/more food. More food helped people to get healthier. Healthier women tend to conceive more easily = higher birth rate. Death rate decreases. Population increases (more or less doubled). The weather was not stable; there were some good years and some bad years. After 1740, the bad weather affected many more people. Demography . New crops: potato (from new world; produces largest yield). More people meant that people had to clear natural land (drain swamps – better for crops). Swamps have mosquitoes, and when they were drained, there were less disease-carrying mosquitoes, so the population went up. War. 1720s: Wars of Polish Succession; 1740-1748: War of Austrian Succession; 1756-1763: The Seven Years War; 1778-1780s: War of the American Colonies (Revolutionary War). Almost a century of constant war. War is expensive . The stress of war on government. Rulers are going to find that they have to tax those people who have been exempt from taxation. Poland: The king in Poland had almost no power and was elected by the nobles. To be elected, he had to promise not to tax the nobles and give them what they wanted. Polish Assembly – Sejm (assembly of the nobles). To pass anything the votes had to be unanimous. 1 st Partition -- In 1772, the rulers of Prussia, Austria, and Russia came together and decided to each take a piece of Poland. In 1792, 2 nd Partition – they each took another piece. In 1795, 3 rd Partition, they took the rest of Poland. If you are not ready to fight, you ‘get eaten.’
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Great Britain: When Queen Ann died (1713), The Hanover Family took over. The first was George (George I). He did not speak much English. He had 2 mistresses as his translators. His son, George II, died in 1760. During the first 2 Georges, the power shifted to Parliament. George III (1760-1820) went insane during his reign. Every spring he was sane, during the fall he was crazy; so they could not elect a regent. No taxation without representation. Britain had access to a larger tax base than other countries, and their tax base was more willing than anyone else’s, because England is ruled by Parliament. France: Louis XIV dies in 1715. He outlived his sons and grandsons, so Louis XV, a great-grandson, took the throne at the age of 5. He thought he did not have to do anything. He had many mistresses and hunted a lot. He reigned until 1774. Louis XVI, (Louis XV’s grandson), took the throne. He was not very capable. He was married to Marie Antoinette (1770). He was 16, she was 15. He reigned until 1789. France was involved in all of the wars. They could not force nobles to pay taxes.
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notes. test 2. - February 17, 2009 1715-1789: The Old...

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