Enlightenment

Enlightenment - Enlightenment Test October 24 Intellectual...

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Enlightenment Test October 24 Intellectual Influences and Enlightened Thought - Philosophs reflect the influence of the scientific revolution o Applied scientific method to the study of nature and the universe o John Locke links the SR to the enlightenment He believed that scientific method could be applied to the study of society An Essay Concerning Human Understanding- published in 1690 In this work, Lock theorized than an individual is a Tabula Rasa- a blank slate at birth Denied that there were inherited abilities Rejects the idea that humanity is stained by original sin He asserts the idea of the dignity of the individual o Every person had the right to life, liberty and property Monarchies were based on a social contract between the ruler and the ruled People had to relinquish some of their liberty in exchange for their security o Philosophs call for reform, communicating in letters, books, manuscripts, novels, poetry and pamphlets They glorify the interdependence of writers- the Republic of Letters Informal international community of Philosophs Four of them dominated in enlightenment discourse- they are deeply involved with ideas about society, religion and politics - Montesquieu o Published the Persian Letters in 1721- in the form of reports sent home by two Persian visitors to Paris Trying to give an outsiders view of what the society is in France Goes into the political and social injustice in the West He argued- nature reveals a universal standard of justice that applies for all people in all places at all times Everyone should have the same rights no matter where they live, what the social class is and what time period In the Persian letters he also offers the first critical examination of the institution of slavery He rejects it as an extension of tyranny o In 1748- The Spirit of the Laws; begins the high enlightenment
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He applies the principles of scientific inquiry to the social and political foundations of the state
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Enlightenment - Enlightenment Test October 24 Intellectual...

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