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Chapter 16 - 17 Respiration

Chapter 16 - 17 Respiration - Chapters 16-17:Respiratory...

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Chapters 16-17:Respiratory System Chapter 16 Respiration •Includes 6 separate functions: 1- Ventilation : Breathing. 2- Gas exchange : –between air and blood in the lungs (external) –between blood and tissues at the capillaries (cell respiration) 3- Oxygen utilization : –Cellular respiration (mitochondria) 4- Homeostatic regulation of blood pH 5- Protection from inhaled pathogens & irritants 6- Vocalization : air passing over our vocal cords Terminology Inspiration : movement of air into lungs Expiration : movement of air out of lungs Conducting System : airways from nose to alveoli (know this system) Alveoli : functional unit where exchange of gases occur by diffusion Type I very thin for rapid diffusion Type II secrete surfactant; inside alveoli (within type 1) Diaphragm & intercostals : major muscles in ventilation Compliance : ability of lungs to stretch External Respiration Figure 16.1 –Pulmonary ventilation –Exchange between lungs and blood –Transportation in blood –Exchange between blood and body tissues Upper Airways and Respiratory Tract Figure 16.2 Uvula is there to prevent food from going up your nose. When you swallow, you can’t breathe b/ c the uvula blocks the passage. Trachea is always anterior to the esophagus. Vocal cords are on the glottis Structures of the Conducting Zone –Trachea (1) –Bronchi (2) Secondary bronchi Right side - 3 (to 3 lobes of right lung) •Left side - 2 (to 2 lobes of left lung) Bronchioles (lots) •Less than 1 mm diameter Functions of the Conducting Zone –Air passageway • 150 mL volume = dead space volume
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–Increase air temperature to body temperature –Humidify air Epithelium of the Conducting Zone Goblet cells – secrete mucus. Mucus collects the garbage you inhale Ciliated cells – cilia move particles toward mouth (smokers destroy the cilia) Mucus escalator - gets particles out of lungs so they don’t do any damage Structures of the Respiratory Zone Figure 16.5 –Respiratory bronchioles –Alveoli –Alveolar sacs: rich capillary supply •Functional Unit –Exchange of gases between air and blood by diffusion Micrographs of Respiratory Bronchioles and Alveoli Figure 16.4b Anatomy of Alveoli Figure 16.5c Alveoli - Type I alveolar cells – make up wall of alveoli • single layer of epithelial cells Type II alveolar cells – secrete surfactant that hold the alveoli open –Alveolar macrophages – use diapedesis to pull out foreign objects Figure 16.6a Respiratory Membrane –Barrier for diffusion •Type 1 cells + basement membrane •Capillary endothelial cells + basement membrane – 0.2 microns thick Chest Wall and Pleural Sac Figure 16.7 Structures of the Thoracic Cavity Pleura – membrane lining of lungs and chest wall •Pleural sac around each lung •Intrapleural space filled with intrapleural fluid Pleurisy : infection causing shortness of breath and “drowning” feeling due to too much fluid being produced and the lung won’t be able to expand with all the fluid.
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Chapter 16 - 17 Respiration - Chapters 16-17:Respiratory...

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