Chapter 18 - Urinary

Chapter 18 - Urinary - Chapters 18 & 19 Urinary System...

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Functions of the Urinary System They contribute to homeostasis. They control electrolyte and water balance of the ECF, plus urinary output. Kidneys eliminate excess H2O or electrolytes Kidneys can reduce loss of H2O or electrolytes by reclaiming them using hormonal action If the ECF has an excess of water or electrolytes, the kidneys eliminate the excess. If there is a deficiency of these substances, the kidneys can reduce the loss of these from the body. Other Kidney Functions maintaining the proper osmolarity of body fluids maintaining proper plasma volume helping to maintain proper acid-base balance (release H+ ions) excreting wastes of body metabolism excreting many foreign compounds producing EPO and renin converting vitamin D to an active form Structures of the Urinary System Figure 18.1 Urinary System Kidneys – Retroperitoneal; filter blood; form urine Ureters - transport urine from kidneys to bladder Bladder - store urine Urethra - excrete urine from bladder to outside of body Micturition = urination Urine formed in renal tubules Fluid drains into renal pelvis and into ureter Ureters lead to bladder Bladder stores urine until it is excreted Anatomy of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra figure 18.21 Clinical Aspects UTIs= urinary tract infections Most often in ♀ (women) Shorter urethras Urethra close to anus (more likely to have fecal contamination)
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Causes: Escherichia coli infections Prevention: Wipe front to back Pee after coitus (sex) (helps to eliminate any bacteria gained during sex) Drink plenty of fluids Macroscopic Anatomy of the Kidney Figure 18.2 Renal Pyramid Anatomy of a Nephron – Figure 18.3 The tubular part of the nephron is a hollow tube with different regions. Fluid passes through it. It begins with the Bowman’s capsule, which fits around the glomerulus. Filtered fluid passes from the Bowman’s capsule into the proximal tubule. It lies entirely in the cortex. Loop of Henle. The distal tubule empties into the collecting duct. The loop of Henle and collecting duct are found in the medulla of the kidney. Blood Supply to Kidney – figure 18.6 Renal artery delivers “dirty blood”. -> . . afferent arteriole -> glomerulus -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries or vasa recta -> …-> Renal vein leaves with “clean blood” Basic Renal Processes Glomerular filtration – from glomerulus to bowman’s capsule Reabsorption – from proximal tubules to peritubular capillaries Secretion – from peritubular capillaries to distal tubules Excretion – from tubules out of the body Basic Renal Processes – figure 18.7 Anatomy of Renal Corpuscle and Filtration Barrier – Figure 18.8 Filtration barrier Capillary endothelial cells Basement membrane Tubule epithelial cells
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Chapter 18 - Urinary - Chapters 18 & 19 Urinary System...

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