Chapter 23 Immune System

Chapter 23 Immune System - READ THIS CHAPTER Chapter 23 The...

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READ THIS CHAPTER! Chapter 23 The Immune System Chapter Outline Anatomy of the Immune System Organization of the Body’s Defenses Humoral Immunity Cell-Mediated Immunity Immune Responses in Health and Disease Immune Dysfunctions B-cells - B cells associated with antibodies - B cell contacts antigen that forms a plasma cell - Plasma cell secretes antibodies also known as immunoglobins (Ig) - Antibodies mark invaders for destruction T-Cells - Directly damage foreign cells (they kill) - T cells contact infected, mutant or transplanted cells - Develop into cytotoxic T (Tc) cells that destroy target cell o Takes several days o Secretory products form pores in target cell membrane o Lysis Null cells (NK) - Most are natural killer cells - Important against viral infections - Attack virus-infected cells – cause lysis - Fast acting – early immune response Lymphoid Tissues - all of these tissues make or house lymphocytes. All part of immune system. Bone marrow – where T cells are made Thymus - formed right at breastbone & clavicle meet. (Covers large area on newborn, shrinks with age). This is where the T cells mature. Spleen – WBCs hang here Lymph nodes – “” Tonsils – “” Adenoids – back by nose Appendix Peyer’s patches – found on intestine, deals with food getting through. Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone Marrow + Thymus = Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone marrow Hematopoietic stem cells: precursor for all blood cells Leukocytes except T lymphocytes fully develop Thymus T lymphocytes migrate from bone marrow to thymus Develop maturity in thymus Function of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissue Trap microorganisms and foreign particles (getting them out of the way before they can cause harm) 1
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Expose them to leukocytes in high Concentrations Spleen and Lymph Nodes Filter blood and lymph Tonsils and Adenoids Trap inhaled particles Appendix and Peyer’s Patches (on small intestines) Trap ingested particles Appendix is really unimportant Non-Specific Defenses External Defenses Inflammation Interferons Natural Killer Cells The Complement System Nonspecific Defenses: External Defenses Physical Barriers Skin – good defense against many things in the environment Mucous membranes Mucus Chemical Barriers (ie sebaceous glands) Secretions from sebaceous (oil in hair) and sweat glands pH = 3-5 (prevents a lot of bacteria from settling) Sebaceous glands secrete oily substance into hair follicles Tears have lysozymes that break down antigens. People who smoke destroy ciliated cells in the respiratory tract that help prevent against invaders. Nonspecific Immunity: Cellular
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Chapter 23 Immune System - READ THIS CHAPTER Chapter 23 The...

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