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Chapter_19 - Chapter 19 BIO 1002 Bot h Chapter 19 H idden...

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Both Organisms Chapter 19 BIO 1002 1/22/2008 Chapter 19 : Hidden World of Microbes I. - Microbe - (microscopic organism, especially one that transmits a disease) - too small to be seen clearly without a microscope - 3 Types: Prokaryotes , range in size from 0.2-1.0 m μ c) Uni-cellular Eukaryotes , range in size from 10-100 μm, (or a micrometer= 1/1000 of meter; the period at the end of a sentence is about 1,000 m) μ - Comparison of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses - (Eukaryotic cells are the largest, then prokaryotes, and viruses are the smallest) d) Other Biological Entities: (even smaller than bacteria) - Not organisms because they don’t have all of the characteristics of an independent living organism 1. Viruses - Small (0.05-0.2 μm), vary in shapes and size, ex: rabies, herpes, measles - Parts: a) Genome (genetic information, can either be single- stranded or double stranded DNA or RNA) b) Capsid (protein coat which surrounds and protects genome) c) Envelope (membrane, or phospholipids bilayer, which surrounds the capsid) - Hijack cells (highly specific for organisms it infects) 2. Virods - Even simpler and smaller than viruses - Fragments of single-stranded RNA with NO protein coat (capsid) - Hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells (including citrus trees, potatoes, avocados) 3. Prions - Unusual infectious particle - Protein particle with no genetic material (ex: DNA or RNA) unlike a virus
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- Ex: Mad Cow, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and Kuru - (without enzymes you cannot survive) prions consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other proteins fold wrong - Origins: developed as a by-product of living organisms - Bio Remediation c) Used to clean up the environment d) Ex :) Deinococcus Radiodurans - Survive 3000x more radiation than a human being - Tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold -
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