NOTES - Chapter 34: Information Processing The Nervous...

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Brain – central processing until; everything in the nervous system will make it back to your brain. Nerve cells make up this system. Neurons – nerve cells Functions of the Neurons Receive Information – each one of the cells in your nervous system does this. They take in inputs within each one. Integrate Information – they add it all up Conduct Signal to its Output Transmit Signal to Other Cells Coordinate their own Metabolic Activity – they are living. Four Parts of the Neuron Structure Dendrites (input) – tangle of fibers that branch from the cell body. They receive information fro the environment and convert it to electrical signals. All of our senses work in this way. There are specific parts of the cell that change it to an electrical signal. Cell Body (computing) – receives signals from Dendrites to produce an action potential (output signal). It will produce a voltage down the length of the cell. Axon – long thin fiber extending from cell body. It carries action potentials to output terminals. Axons also bundled into nerves. o It usually wrapped with insulating layers to transmit impulses rapidly. Synaptic Terminals – sites at which signals are transmitted to other cells (glands, muscles, or dendrites) o It usually involves a group of chemicals called neurotransmitters . Path of a Nerve Impulse = Dendrite Cell Body Axon Synaptic Terminal PICTURE – know the mile sheet that protects it o Most of the cells are slightly negative when the cell becomes positive it fires and sends signals to the synaptic terminal Mechanism of Neural Activity Resting Potential – resting neurons maintain a constant electrical potential (voltage) across the cell membrane. A neuron is stimulated by potentials from the outside sources. o The outside sources cause the cells to become slightly positive. Action Potential – wave of electric charge that travels unimpeded along axon. o When an action potential reaches the synaptic terminal, it triggers the release of the chemicals called neurotransmitters into the gap between neurons. o The current is not transmitted to the next neuron, just the chemicals. Neurotransmitters – diffuse across the gap and bind to protein receptors in the dendrite membrane. Of the second neuron resulting in a postsynaptic potential so that the signal is transmitted to the next cell. When it gets to the end, the whole process goes on again – millions of times, all the time (your body is constantly doing this). o PICTURE Postsynaptic Potential (after it is contacted) o Excitatory Inhibitory – makes receiving neuron less likely to fire an action potential.
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2009 for the course BIOL 1002 taught by Professor Pomarico during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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NOTES - Chapter 34: Information Processing The Nervous...

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