PAM 203 chapter 3 - PAM 203 Demographic Perspective...

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PAM 203 Demographic Perspective Demographic perspective —a way of relating basic information to theories about how the world operates demographically What are the causes of population growth? What are the consequences of population growth or change? Pre-modern population doctrines Humans viewed population as a virtue, as a means of replacing people lost through universally high mortality Plato —“the laws” 360 BC emphasizes the importance of populations stablility rather than growth. ...ideal community consists of 5,040 people Roman Empire Pronatalist—reigns of Julis and Augustus Caeser—necessary due to the high mortality rates that characterized roman eras Replacing war casualties and ensuring enough people to help colonize new lands Christian doctrines however were antinatalist —christianity condemned polygamy, divorce, abortion, and infanticide, practices that kept roman growth rates lower than they otherwise would have been Augustine argues that abstinence was the highest state of human spirituality Ibn Khaldun —14 th century—population growth creates the need for specialization of occupations, leads to higher incomes, concentrated especially in cities each town is a market for different kinds of labor, and each market absorbs a total expenditure proportionate to its size these societies evolved and were transformed as a part of natural and normal processes “procreation is stimulated by high hopes and reslting heightening of animal energies” As Europe muddles through Middle Ages, Islam expands throughout Mediterranean, muslims take control of southerin Italy and Iberian peninsula…control Balkans and SE Europe Islamic contribution to Europe = huge Thomas Aquainas —marriage and famil building not inferior to celibacy, thus implicitl promoting that population growth is a good thing End of 14 th century… Muslims expelled from southern Spain Europeans begin discovery and exploitation of Africa, Americas, South Asisa
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Cities begin to grow Colombian Exchange begins—trade of food, manufactured goods, people, and disease between the Americas and most of the rest of the world This rise in trade prompts: Mercantilism —maintained that a nation’s wealth was determined by the amount of precious metals maintained it had in its possession, which were acquired by exporting more goods than were imported, with the profit being stored in precious metals More things to produce, more wealth, more workers, more wealth John Graunt —Londoner often called the father of demography—analyzed the series of Bills of Mortality in the first known statistical analysis of demographic data Used spare moments to conduct studies—for every 100 people brn in London, only 16 were alive at age 36 and only 3 at age 66 Discovered high incidence of infant mortality in London William Petty Member of the royal society in London, circulated graunt’s work to the society Brought it to the attention of the scientific world of 17
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2009 for the course PAM 2030 taught by Professor Lichler during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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PAM 203 chapter 3 - PAM 203 Demographic Perspective...

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