Week 1 Homework Solutions

Week 1 Homework Solutions - CA 1-1(a Financial accounting...

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CA 1-1 (a) Financial accounting is the process that culminates in the preparation of financial reports relative to the enterprise as a whole for use by parties both internal and external to the enterprise. In contrast, managerial accounting is the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, prepa-ration, interpretation, and communication of financial information used by the management to plan, evaluate, and control within an organization and to assure appropriate use of, and accountability for, its resources. (b) The financial statements most frequently provided are the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of cash flows, and the statement of changes in owners or stockholders equity. (c) Financial statements are the principal means through which financial information is communicated to those outside an enterprise. As indicated in (b), there are four major financial statements. However, some financial information is better provided, or can be provided only, by means of financial reporting other than formal financial statements. Financial reporting (other than financial statements and related notes) may take various forms. Examples include the company president s letter or supplementary schedules in the corporate annual reports, prospectuses, reports filed with govern-ment agencies, news releases, management s forecasts, and descriptions of an enterprise s social or environmental impact.
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CA 1-4 It is not appropriate to abandon mandatory accounting standards and allow each company to voluntarily disclose the type of information it considered important. Without a coherent body of accounting theory and standards, each accountant or enterprise would have to develop its own theory structure and set of practices, and readers of financial statements would have to familiarize themselves with every company s peculiar accounting and reporting practices. As a result, it would be almost impossible to prepare state-ments that could be compared. In addition, voluntary disclosure may not be an efficient way of disseminating information. A company is likely to disclose less information if it has the discretion to do so. Thus, the company can reduce its cost of assembling and disseminating information. However, an investor wishing additional information has to pay to receive additional information desired. Different investors may be interested in different types of information. Since the company may not be equipped to provide the requested information, it would have to spend additional resources to fulfill such needs; or the company may refuse to furnish such information if it s too costly to do so. As a result, investors may not get the desired information or they may have to pay a significant amount of money for it. Furthermore, redundancy in gathering and distributing information occurs when different investors ask for the same information at different points in time. To the society as a whole, this would not be an efficient way of utilizing resources.
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Week 1 Homework Solutions - CA 1-1(a Financial accounting...

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