Lecture2_TerminologyDiversity

Lecture2_TerminologyDiversity - 1/13/2009 1 Lecture 2:...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/13/2009 1 Lecture 2: ECOL/BIOL 4150/6150D ECOL/BIOL 4150/6150D Terminology and Diversity of Parasites Disease ecology Disease ecology Ecology how organisms interact with their environment Both abiotic (air/soil/water/light) and biotic components of the environment Disease ecology: study of e cological interactions between parasites / pathogens and their hosts (ecologically speaking) any organism that lives on and draws nutrients from another living organism, usually to the Parasite: definition Parasite: definition hosts detriment Like predation, a +/- interaction Parasitism is just one type of Parasitism is just one type of ecological interaction ecological interaction per host (P:N) 10 X Microparasites Macroparasites Types of natural enemies Types of natural enemies Body size of enemy (small to large) Number of enemies p 1 Parasitoids Predators Parasite = pathogen Ecologically equivalent-Organism derives benefit and host is harmed Pathogen traditionally reserved for pathogenic microbes (viruses, bacteria) Parasite traditionally used for larger organisms (protozoa, worms and arthropods) What is disease? Humans: any semi-permanent condition that has a negative effect on an individuals well-being (i. e. causes discomfort, incapacity, illness). 1/13/2009 2 What is disease from a wildlife What is disease from a wildlife ecology perspective? ecology perspective? Any semi-permanent condition that has a negative effect on an individuals survival individual s survival and/or reproduction (aka fitness). Disease is the product of the Disease is the product of the interaction interaction between the host and between the host and the pathogen the pathogen Fever response Reduced food intake Reduced food intake Diminished activity (lethargy, sleep) Immune responses (e.g. immunopathology) Disease triangle The outcome of disease requires susceptible host population, virulent pathogen, and favorable environment. Virulent Pathogen Favorable Environmental Factors Disease Dictionary Infected harboring a disease agent Infectious able to transmit pathogen Diseased experiencing pathology of infection Disease Dictionary (cont): Infectious Agents Infectious agents: Replicating entities that multiply in or on hosts , and can be transferred from host to host. Organisms (e.g. viruses, and all else) Protein molecules (e.g. prions) Cell lines (e.g. transmissible tumors) Disease Etiology The study of the factors that cause disease and the method of their introduction into the host. Kochs postulates (1890) 1/13/2009 3 Disease Etiology Kochs postulates- organism must be found in all diseased hosts & no healthy ones....
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Lecture2_TerminologyDiversity - 1/13/2009 1 Lecture 2:...

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