Lecture14_Multihost%20Pathogens - Stereotypical study...

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3/3/2009 1 Community epidemiology: Expanding the 1 host – 1 pathogen framework 1 pathogen Ladybird-mite Seal-PDV Stereotypical study system for infectious disease ecology host Human-measles Silene-anther smut Lobster-Virus Red Grouse-nematode House finch conjuntivitis 2 Community epidemiology Introduction •Community epidemiology : multi-host, multi- parasite interactions in a community context • Expand from one host – one parasite framework - - + + H H P - + Pr H P + - Multi-host parasites Host-predator-prey and food webs - - ++ H P P Parasite communities 3 Upcoming topics… • Today – Ecology of multi-host pathogens Thursday • Thursday – Pathogens in food webs (predators, prey and parasites) • After spring break – Co-infection and interactions between parasite species 4 • Causes of generalism • Consequences of infecting >1 host Apparent competition: a non specific Ecology of multi-host parasites – Apparent competition: a non-specific parasite is a powerful weapon –Dilution effect: is biodiversity good for your health? • Mathematical/conceptual framework 5 • Intimate association • Machinery required for invasion and replication might be host-specific Conventional view: parasites should specialize on a single host species • Parasites selected to replicate or transmit well in one host would lose ability to infect other species Jack-of-all-trades is the master of none 6
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3/3/2009 2 Most pathogens can infect multiple host species 60% (n = 1415) 80% (n = 616) •NipahV irus • West Nile Virus Salmonella enterica • Rinderpest virus Brucella abortus Mycobacterium bovis Cleaveland et al. 2001 Phil. Trans. Taylor et al. 2001 Phil. Trans. 7 Multi-host pathogens pose greatest risk for human health 8 …. and wildlife health 9 Causes of multi-host parasites? • Transmission strategy – Ability to disperse to new hosts – Duration and intimacy of contact • Pathogen type – Genetic variation – Generation times – Mutation rates – Complex lifecycles Woolhouse et al. 2001 Science 10 Parasites of wild primates • Well studied mammalian clade • Threatened by infectious disease • Important reservoirs for emerging human pathogens Pedersen, Altizer, Cunningham and Poss, 2005. Int J. Parasitology Davies and Pedersen 2008. Proc. Roy. Soc. 11 Questions • What is the taxonomic diversity of primate parasites? • How host specific are parasites in free living populations? • Does the levels of specificity vary with – Taxonomy? – Transmission mode? • What determines which primates share more parasite species?
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Lecture14_Multihost%20Pathogens - Stereotypical study...

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