Lecture%2016%20Coinfection

Lecture%2016%20Coinfection - 3/17/2009 Community...

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3/17/2009 1 2 Community epidemiology III •Expand from one host – one parasite framework • Multi-host, multi-parasite interactions in a community context + + H H P + Pr H P + Multi-host parasites Host-predator-prey and food webs ++ H P P Parasite communities 3 Competition and mutualism among rabbit gut parasites European rabbits 23 yrs of field data 5 main gut helminths infecting the stomach, Lello et al. 2004. Science small and large intestine (nematodes and cestodes) 4 Both positive and negative interactions detected Lello et al. 2004. Science 5 Both positive and negative interactions were detected Lello et al. 2004. Science 6 Co ­ infection with micro ­ and macroparasites Myxoma virus and Trichostrongylus Myxoma enhances susceptibility to T. retortaeformis and generates highly infected hosts that transmit more worms and remain infectious for longer Cattadori et al. 2007, 2008 7
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3/17/2009 2 Helminth ­ HIV co ­ infection: should we deworm? Helminths HIV/AIDS Tb Bundy et al. 2000 8 Helminth infections and HIV/AIDS Wolday et al. 2002 9 Changes in HIV ­ titre after treatment for helminths l – initial) HIV viral load (final No worms Successfully treated Worms remained Wolday et al. 2002 10 Interactions between parasite species determine: Parasite replication Host fitness and severity of symptoms Release of transmission stages Epidemiology of each parasite species Design of control programs 11 Types of interactions “Bottom‐up” mechanisms Within ­ host competition for resources or space Ecological interference via reduced contact or density (Rohani et al. 2003) 12 “Top‐down” mechanisms Facilitation via host defenses HIV and opportunistic infections Indirect competition via host defenses cross protection immune priming Within ­ host competition between parasites 13
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Lecture%2016%20Coinfection - 3/17/2009 Community...

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