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Hudsonetal1998

Hudsonetal1998 - REPORTS dynamics of dissolved nutrient...

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dynamics of dissolved nutrient patches. We have yet to identify the frequency of occur- rence and magnitude spectra of such patches in specific microbial food webs. They un- doubtedly represent interesting ecological niches for bacteria, and they will also con- tribute much to our understanding of the flow of nutrients and energy in aquatic ecosystems if they prove to be major pathways. References and notes 1. J. C. Goldman, Bull. Mar. Sci. 35 , 462 (1984). 2. E. M. Purcell, Am. J. Phys. 45 , 3 (1977). 3. G. A. Jackson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 32 , 1253 (1987). 4. W. Bell and R. Mitchell, Biol. Bull. 143 , 265 (1972). 5. J. G. Mitchell, A. Okubo, J. A. Fuhrman, Nature 316 , 58 (1985); J. D. Bowen, K. D. Stolzenbach, S. W. Chisholm, Limnol. Oceanogr. 38 , 36 (1993). 6. N. Blackburn, unpublished observations. 7. iiii , F. Azam, Å. Hagstro ¨m, Limnol. Oceanogr. 42 , 613 (1997). 8. Samples were taken, immediately before observation, from the vicinity of algal mats in a large seawater aquarium with high through-flow. The microbial community could be characterized as being rich and diverse. Identical communities have been observed in completely natural habitats. A standard microscope fitted with a dark-field condenser was used for ob- servation with a 10 3 objective giving a depth of field of ; 20 m m. The magnification was increased for some recordings with a magnifying lens. Samples were observed in a chamber made by a 1.5-mm- thick rubber O-ring placed on top of a microscope slide and covered with a cover slip. A fiber optic light source was used for illumination to minimize heat transfer. A standard video camera and VCR were used for recordings. 9. A. Andersson, C. Lee, F. Azam, Å. Hagstro ¨m, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 23 , 99 (1985); P. A. Jumars, D. L. Penry, J. A. Baross, M. J. Perry, B. W. Frost, Deep-Sea Res. 36 , 483 (1989). 10. J. T. Lehman and D. Scavia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79 , 5001 (1982). 11. P. J. L. Williams and L. R. Muir, in Ecohydrodynamics , J. C. J. Nihoul, Ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1981), pp. 209–218; D. J. Currie, J. Plankton Res. 6 , 591 (1984); G. A. Jackson, Nature 284 , 439 (1980). 12. D. A. Brown and H. C. Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 , 1388 (1974). 13. T. Fenchel, Microbiology 140 , 3109 (1994); J. G. Mitchell et al. , Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61 , 877 (1995); J. G. Mitchell, L. Pearson, S. Dillon, K. Kantalis, ibid. , p. 4436; J. G. Mitchell, L. Pearson, S. Dillon, ibid. 62 , 3716 (1996); G. M. Barbara and J. G. Mitchell, ibid. , p. 3985. 14. Samples of seawater were enriched with 0.02% tryp- tic soy broth and left overnight, after which the culture contained strains of highly motile bacteria. Samples were sandwiched between a slide and cover slip after the addition of cells from a pure culture of Pavlova lutheri . A ring of bacteria around the air- water interface of the chamber indicated near anoxia inside the chamber. 15. P. A. Wheeler, in Nitrogen in the Marine Environment , E. J. Carpenter and D. G. Capone, Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1983), p. 309. 16. F. Azam and J. W. Ammerman, in Flows of Energy and Materials in Marine Ecosystems , M. J. R. Fasham, Ed.
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