Lecture_9_STDs - 2/12/2009 Sexually transmitted diseases in...

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2/12/2009 1 Sexually transmitted diseases in theory and reality Life is a sexually transmitted disease and the mortality rate Quote for the day: is one hundred percent. ­ R.D. Laing Outline 1. Sexually transmitted diseases 2. Decomposing the transmission function 3. Density and frequency dependent transmission 4. Variance in sexual contacts: STD spread in polygynous groups 5. HIV/AIDs and heterogeneity in sexual contact Human STDs Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ) Gonorrhea ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae ) Herpes simplex virus (HSV‐1 and 2) HIV/AIDS Human papillomavirus (HPV) Trichomoniasis ( Trichomonas vaginalis ) Phthirus pubis (crab lice) History of Syphilis (Knell 2003) Reported in Europe: 1495 “Great pox” “French disease” Brought to Europe by Columbus? “pustules often covered the body pustules often covered the body from the head to the knees, caused flesh to fall from people's faces, and led to death within a few months.“ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. Rapidly became less severe over several decades WWII anti ­ VD propaganda
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2/12/2009 2 STDs in contemporary U.S. 19 million new cases of STDs diagnosed per year Almost ½ are among 15‐24 year olds One in every two sexually active teens will acquire an STD HPV, trichomoniasis and chlamydia accounted for 88% of new STD cases among youth Do other animals get STDs? Nematodes Papillomaviruses Chlamydia • >200 STDs in 27 orders of hosts. • Pathogens included: viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa, fungi, and STDs are diverse and common Lockhart, A.B., P.H. Thrall, and J. Antonovics. 1996. Sexually transmitted diseases in animals: ecological and evolutionary implications. Biol. Rev. 71 :415‐471. arthropods. • Absence of evidence for a species likely indicates absence of searching for STDs. Effects of STDs on Hosts: 1. May cause sterility in males or females. 2. Commonly exhibit vertical transmission; may have detrimental effects on health of offspring have detrimental effects on health of offspring. 3. Lower mortality than other infectious diseases.
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Lecture_9_STDs - 2/12/2009 Sexually transmitted diseases in...

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