EpistemologyWAndE - EPISTEMOLOGY The Fundamental questions...

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EPISTEMOLOGY The Fundamental questions of Epistemology: How do I learn what I do not know? Is knowledge Possible? Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Is certainty Possible? The Problem of Criterion of Truth? Should we believe beyond evidence?
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How do I learn what I do not Know? We all have questions about life, how do we answer to these questions? If I cannot answer them, at least I should comprehend/understand them better? The questions arise from what we know. But, what I know is either doubtful or not enough? By questioning what we ‘think’ we know, we engage in an activity- questioning- Philosophy. How can we distinguish between opinion and Knowledge?
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Common Sense Knowledge Others: someone told us. Self: I have studied a body of knowledge. I have experienced certain things. When I revise those “things/notions I know” I find arguments to “accept them” or to “refute them.”– this exercise is called TO REASON. Leibniz, S. XVII “… is a faculty capable of establishing and capturing relationships that cause things to be dependant on others, and to be determined in a certain way and not other”
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REASON Reason is not what others tell me, or the studies, or the experiences, reason is an “Intellectual procedure, that I use to organize the information , the studies and the experiences.” Characteristics of Reason: Reason is not exclusively personal. Reason is universal (Plato/Descartes), everyone posses it, even those would not use it, is universal in the sense that everyone could agree in certain arguments We use reason to arrived,or to established the TRUTH.
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TRUTH To search for the truth, through reason is to attempt to understand what is REAL. Not all truths are of the same kind, or are attained through the same mediums: Reason has the mission to define the different arenas of the truth: EMPIRICISTS RATIONALISTS RELATIVISTS UNIVERSALISTS SKEPTICALS REVELATION
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Empiricism We know things because we experience them with our senses: Touch, smell, sight, hearing, taste Emotions Knowledge is inductive. Knowledge is a-posteriori. Sensations made impressions. The mind is a tabula-rasa (blank state).
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Rationalism We know things by reason We are born ideas/notions: innate ideas Knowledge is intuitive Knowledge is a- priori. Rene Descartes
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Relativism and Universalism The subjective knowledge is always imposed on the objective knowledge- Empiricism vs. Rationalism. Knowledge is involved with: Gender Social Class Culture Personal Character But, there is a body of universal knowledge from all knowledge is derived: Laws of Science Humanities
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Skepticism Skeptics negate or doubt the ability of REASON to find the truth. There is no absolute Knowledge. The skeptic claims that there is no knowledge that is
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2009 for the course HUM 282927 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '08 term at Florida State College.

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EpistemologyWAndE - EPISTEMOLOGY The Fundamental questions...

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