PoliticalPhilosophy - Political Philosophy West: Plato...

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Unformatted text preview: Political Philosophy West: Plato Socrates The Republic Thomas Hobbes Leviathan John Locke East Confucius Buddha Feminism Elizabeth Cady Stanton What is Justice? What is the relationship between the individual and the state? What is the best form of Government? Who should rule? Who should have the ultimate authority to rule? Why do need laws? Why should we obey the rules? Under these fundamental questions, there are some other essential questions: What is right? Are people naturally good/evil? Human Nature By which values shall I live in the world? Are we free or determined? Whose interest be more important, the interest of the individual or the interest of the state? Political and Social Philosophy deals with issues of moral value (Axiology) at the level of the group. The law is the traditional dividing line between the individual and society. Where do the individuals rights end and the rights of the state begin, and which should receive the benefit of the doubt in cases of conflict? Some philosophers have argued that the state exists to serve and to protect the rights of the individual;others insisted that the individual exists to serve the state. This distinction is based on the view of human nature: Humans are basically good and decent- altruistic Humans are selfish and ego-centric- hedonistic We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal , that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights , that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness . Natural Law, Natural Rights and Human Rights Natural Law , a rational principle of order, often the logos, by which the universe was created or is organized and the identifying principle for both the natural world and for human beings. NATURAL LAW: STOICS, ARISTOTLE AND THOMAS AQUINAS Both the natural and human domains are governed by reason. Just as the universe displaced an appropriate place and relationship for the sun and moon, so in human relationships, societies there is a given order and hierarchy. With the use of reason we can discover the natural order of things. A strong state is to be a part of the natural order of things. The Stoics, called this principle logos- a principle that created and directs the natural system. Aristotle, described the human person as a political animal, meaning that by nature we will organize ourselves into political structures. We must discover the preexisting proper order and put this order into practice. Thomas Aquinas, If the natural law, which the stoics had seen as flowing from the logos, or rational principle of the universe, were derived from God, then divine law must be the basis for human society....
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2009 for the course HUM 282927 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '08 term at Florida State College.

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PoliticalPhilosophy - Political Philosophy West: Plato...

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