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L33 - Internet(IP address format 32 bits Four 8-bit units...

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Internet (IP) address format 32 bits. Four 8-bit units separated by dots. Each unit in decimal form. 193.32.216.9 represents: 11000001 00100000 11011000 00001001
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A common prefix is used to designate a subnet . Subnet address - case of first 24 bits comprise subnet address. 223.1.1.0/24 The first 24 bits, this notation, are the subnet address, and 8 bits are available for 2 = 256 interfaces within the subnet. 8 X could be any size less than 32.
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The routing problem Links can be assigned costs. But the huge size of the INTERNET makes it infeasible to find the best route in most cases. Problems are: Huge address space Huge amount of information about link costs. Excessive information to store in routing tables. Hierarchical form of addressing helps. Additional routing can be done inside network. But lots of networks, and subnetworks.
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SUBNETTING Division into three network classes is inefficient. Several networks (subnets) can be included in a single classed network address. Example: a) A single class B network <---14 bits-------> [10 * * 2 addresses in Network 16 b) Class B with 3 or 4 subnets
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With subnetting, a router can look for the whole network if it is outside the network, or within the network it can look for the particular subnetwork.
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